What is tuple? Definition from #composite #software #data #virtualization



1) In programming languages, such as Lisp. Python. Linda, and others, a tuple (pronounced TUH-pul ) is an ordered set of values. The separator for each value is often a comma (depending on the rules of the particular language). Common uses for the tuple as a data type are (1) for passing a string of parameters from one program to another, and (2) representing a set of value attributes in a relational database. In some languages, tuples can be nested within other tuples within parentheses or brackets or other delimiters. Tuples can contain a mixture of other data types.

Here’s an example of a tuple that emphasizes the different data types that may exist within a tuple data type:

The above example is sometimes referred to as a 4-tuple, since it contains four values. An n-tuple would be one with an indeterminate or unspecified number of values.

2) A tuple is analogous to a record in nonrelational databases.

The term originated as an abstraction of the sequence: single, double, triple, quadruple, quintuple. n-tuple. Tuple is used in abstract mathematics to denote a multidimensional coordinate system.

This was last updated in April 2005

Related Terms

COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language) is a programming language created in 1960, and was the first to run on multiple. See complete definition DevOps In its most broad meaning, DevOps is an operational philosophy that promotes better communication between development and. See complete definition DNN Platform (DotNetNuke) DNN Platform, formerly called DotNetNuke Community Edition, is a free, open source content management system (CMS). See complete definition

Virtualization Environments #data #center #virtualization


Licensing for virtual environments

Microsoft offers a comprehensive set of virtualization products from the data center to the desktop for managing both physical and virtual assets from a single platform. Virtualization helps organizations lower costs, improve business continuity, and enable greater business agility.

Microsoft’s licensing for virtualization environments supports the flexible ways you can deploy Microsoft solutions.

Debra Goss-Seeger, Senior Partner/Channel Marketing Manager, Worldwide Licensing and Pricing

In this short video, Debra Goss-Seeger discusses basic principles that determine how Microsoft licenses its products, and how products are licensed when used for virtualization.

Licensing for virtual environments scenarios

Review the videos above to learn how Microsoft licensing supports the following virtualization scenarios:

  • Servers in virtual environments
  • Desktop virtualization
  • Application virtualization
  • Managing virtual environments

After reviewing the virtualization scenarios, download the following Volume Licensing briefs for more information.

Licensing Microsoft server products for use in virtual environments
Provides an overview of Microsoft licensing models for the server operating system and server applications under virtual environments.

Licensing Windows Server 2012 R2 RDS and Microsoft desktop applications for use with RDS
Clarifies Microsoft licensing policies for Windows Server Remote Desktop Services (RDS)—including the new components that are in Windows Server and Microsoft desktop applications for use with Windows Server RDS.

Licensing Windows desktop operating system for use with virtual machines
Provides an overview of the Microsoft Volume Licensing use rights for the Windows 8 operating system when running within virtual machines.

2016 Data and Analytics Conference – Global Events – Cisco Systems #cisco, #data, #analytics, #data #virtualization, #data #and #analytics #conference, #data #preparation, #edge #analytics, #digital #transformation


Data and Analytics Conference

Overview & Venue

Please join us at the 2016 Data and Analytics Conference, where you will hear how Cisco, our partners, and customers are developing and utilizing new solutions for data and analytics, the Internet of Things, cloud, edge analytics, data preparation and data virtualization. Learn how to get real-time insight from deep within your organization to the edge of your network to fuel innovation, capture competitive advantage and grow your business as you accelerate your digital transformation.

This two-day event will include keynotes from industry luminaries, including Mike Flannagan, VP and GM of Cisco’s Data and Analytics Group and Jim Green, CTO of Cisco’s Data and Analytics Group. Breakout sessions will enable you to dive deeper into data and analytics solutions and technologies that provide insight where the industry is going and how you can take advantage.

Why Attend

  • Gain insights on trends and opportunities from world-renowned technology leaders and strategists.
  • Peer-to-peer interaction and conversation focused on what matters most to you.
  • Derive new strategies for addressing current challenges and anticipating future trends.
  • Understand how to get more out of your Cisco investments today, while building for tomorrow.


Hilton Chicago

The Hilton Chicago – A Nod to the Past with an Eye on the Future

The Hilton Chicago hotel opened its doors in 1927 and has served as one of the city’s most revered addresses ever since. Located on South Michigan Avenue and overlooking Grant Park and Lake Michigan, the hotel has been meticulously redesigned and restored in a way that preserves the magnificence of its early 20th Century style while incorporating all of the 21st Century conveniences our guests expect. With 1,544 guest rooms and suites, 234,000 square feet of meeting and event space, a full menu of amenities, exceptional dining options, and an ideal location in downtown Chicago, the Hilton Chicago hotel is both accommodating and convenient.

Top 10 benefits of server virtualization #data #center #virtualization


Top 10 benefits of server virtualization

Server virtualization on the x86 platform has been around now for more than a decade, yet many in the industry still consider it a “new” technology. But those of us who have already adopted the technology in our own environments have grown to believe we can’t live without it. Many of us also have the opinion that there is simply no going back to a “physical-only world.”

As hard as it might be for fellow enthusiasts to wrap their arms around it, many people have yet to drink the virtual Kool-Aid. Fellow Kool-Aid drinkers may be asking themselves, “Why is that?” And that’s a great question.

[ Download the essential guide to PowerShell and make the most of Microsoft’s command line for Windows, Windows Server, and Exchange. Get the PDF today. | Stay up on key Microsoft technologies with the Enterprise Windows blog and Windows newsletter. ]

Server virtualization has been a game-changing technology for IT, providing efficiencies and capabilities that just aren’t possible when constrained within a physical world. And while server virtualization has continued to mature and advance itself, some virtualized organizations are still not taking full advantage of the offering — stalling their virtual environment at something far less than the 100 percent virtualized data center of the hard-core virtual administrator.

There are many benefits to an IT organization or business when choosing to implement a server virtualization strategy. With the technology we have today, there’s no reason to remain idle and simply watch the parade on the sidelines. If you are still waiting to get into the game, here are 10 great reasons why you should be jumping into the server virtualization game with both feet. These are tried and true benefits that have withstood the test of time (in this case, the last 10 years).

10. Save energy, go green

Maybe you aren’t a “save the whales” or “tree hugging” type of person. That’s cool. I don’t wear the T-shirts either. But seriously, who isn’t interested in saving energy in 2011? Migrating physical servers over to virtual machines and consolidating them onto far fewer physical servers means lowering monthly power and cooling costs in the data center. This was an early victory chant for server virtualization vendors back in the early part of 2000, and it still holds true today.

9. Reduce the data center footprint

This one goes hand in hand with the previous benefit. In addition to saving more of your company’s green with a smaller energy footprint, server consolidation with virtualization will also reduce the overall footprint of your entire data center. That means far fewer servers, less networking gear, a smaller number of racks needed — all of which translates into less data center floor space required. That can further save you money if you don’t happen to own your own data center and instead make use of a co-location facility.

8. QA/lab environments

After completing a server consolidation exercise in the data center, why not donate that hardware to a QA group or build out a lab environment? Virtualization allows you to easily build out a self-contained lab or test environment, operating on its own isolated network. If you don’t think this is useful or powerful, just look to VMware ‘s own trade show, VMworld. This event creates one of the largest public virtual labs I’ve ever experienced, and it truly shows off what you can do with a virtual lab environment. While this is probably way more lab than you’d ever actually need in your own environment, you can see how building something like this would be cost prohibitive with purely physical servers, and in many cases, technologically improbable.

7. Faster server provisioning

As a data center administrator, imagine being able to provide your business units with near instant-on capacity when a request comes down the chain. Server virtualization enables elastic capacity to provide system provisioning and deployment at a moment’s notice. You can quickly clone a gold image, master template, or existing virtual machine to get a server up and running within minutes. Remember that the next time you have to fill out purchase orders, wait for shipping and receiving, and then rack, stack, and cable a physical machine only to spend additional hours waiting for the operating system and applications to complete their installations. I’ve almost completely forgotten what it’s like to click Next Next Next.

6. Reduce hardware vendor lock-in

While not always a bad thing, sometimes being tied down to one particular server vendor or even one particular server model can prove quite frustrating. But because server virtualization abstracts away the underlying hardware and replaces it with virtual hardware, data center managers and owners gain a lot more flexibility when it comes to the server equipment they can choose from. This can also be a handy negotiating tool with the hardware vendors when the time comes to renew or purchase more equipment.

Most server virtualization platforms now offer a number of advanced features that just aren’t found on physical servers, which helps with business continuity and increased uptime. Though the vendor feature names may be different, they usually offer capabilities such as live migration, storage migration, fault tolerance, high availability, and distributed resource scheduling. These technologies keep virtual machines chugging along or give them the ability to quickly recover from unplanned outages. The ability to quickly and easily move a virtual machine from one server to another is perhaps one of the greatest single benefits of virtualization with far-reaching uses. As the technology continues to mature to the point where it can do long-distance migrations, such as being able to move a virtual machine from one data center to another no matter the network latency involved, the virtual world will become that much more in demand.

4. Improve disaster recovery

Virtualization offers an organization three important components when it comes to building out a disaster recovery solution. The first is its hardware abstraction capability. By removing the dependency on a particular hardware vendor or server model, a disaster recovery site no longer needs to keep identical hardware on hand to match the production environment, and IT can save money by buying cheaper hardware in the DR site since it rarely gets used. Second, by consolidating servers down to fewer physical machines in production, an organization can more easily create an affordable replication site. And third, most enterprise server virtualization platforms have software that can help automate the failover when a disaster does strike. The same software usually provides a way to test a disaster recovery failover as well. Imagine being able to actually test and see your failover plan work in reality, rather than hoping and praying that it will work if and when the time comes.

3. Isolate applications

In the physical world, data centers typically moved to a “one app/one server” model in order to isolate applications. But this caused physical server sprawl, increased costs, and underutilized servers. Server virtualization provides application isolation and removes application compatibility issues by consolidating many of these virtual machines across far fewer physical servers. This also cuts down on server waste by more fully utilizing the physical server resources and by provisioning virtual machines with the exact amount of CPU, memory, and storage resources that it needs.

2. Extend the life of older applications

Let’s be honest — you probably have old legacy applications still running in your environment. These applications probably fit into one or more of these categories: It doesn’t run on a modern operating system, it may not run on newer hardware, your IT team is afraid to touch it, and chances are good that the person or company who created it is no longer around to update it. By virtualizing and encapsulating the application and its environment, you can extend its life, maintain uptime, and finally get rid of that old Pentium machine hidden in the corner of the data center. You know the one, it’s all covered in dust with fingerprints from administrators long gone and names forgotten.

1. Help move things to the cloud

Ah yes, the cloud. You knew it was coming at some point in this list, didn’t you? As much as you think you’ve been talked to death about virtualizing your environment, that probably doesn’t even compare to the amount of times in the last year alone that you’ve had someone talk to you about joining “the cloud.” The good news here is that by virtualizing your servers and abstracting away the underlying hardware, you are preparing yourself for a move into the cloud. The first step may be to move from a simple virtualized data center to a private cloud. But as the public cloud matures, and the technology around it advances and you become more comfortable with the thought of moving data out of your data center and into a cloud hosting facility, you will have had a head start in getting there. The journey along the way will have better prepared you and the organization.

What benefits have you gained beyond this list?

This article, “Top 10 benefits of server virtualization ,” was originally published at InfoWorld.com. Follow the latest developments in virtualization at InfoWorld.com. For the latest business technology news, follow InfoWorld.com on Twitter .

Virtualization For Dummies Cheat Sheet #bare #metal #desktop #virtualization


Virtualization For Dummies Cheat Sheet

Virtualization saves money, energy, and space. After you ve decided to go virtual, take steps to make implementation easier: Get to know some important terms about virtualization, types of virtualization, and leading companies and products in virtualization.

Reasons for Moving to Virtualization

If you re trying to decide if virtualization is right for your organization, whether from an economic or technological standpoint, consider these reasons for taking the virtualization plunge:

It saves money: Virtualization reduces the number of servers you have to run, which means savings on hardware costs and also on the total amount of energy needed to run hardware and provide cooling.

It s good for the environment: Virtualization is a green technology through and through. Energy savings brought on by widespread adoption of virtualization technologies would negate the need to build so many power plants and would thus conserve our earth s energy resources.

It reduces system administration work: With virtualization in place, system administrators would not have to support so many machines and could then move from firefighting to more strategic administration tasks.

It gets better use from hardware: Virtualization enables higher utilization rates of hardware because each server supports enough virtual machines to increase its utilization from the typical 15% to as much as 80%.

It makes software installation easier: With software vendors tending more and more towards delivering their products preinstalled in virtual machines (also known as virtual appliances ), much of the traditional installation and configuration work associated with software will disappear.

Types of Virtualization

Currently, most of the activity in the virtualization world focuses on server virtualization the data centers or server farms. The three main types of server virtualization are:

Operating system virtualization (aka containers): Creates self-contained representations of underlying operating system in order to provide applications in isolated execution environments. Each self-contained environment (container) reflects the underlying operating system version and patch level.

Hardware emulation: Represents a computer hardware environment in software so that multiple operating systems can be installed on a single computer.

Paravirtualization: A thin software layer that coordinates access from multiple operating systems to underlying hardware.

Major Players and Products in Virtualization

Once you ve decided on switching to a virtualized environment, where do you go for solutions, support and products? This list represents the major players in virtualization:

VMware: The big daddy of the field. Provides hardware emulation virtualization products called VMware Server and ESX Server.

Xen: A new open source contender. Provides a paravirtualization solution. Xen comes bundled with most Linux distributions.

XenSource: The commercial sponsor of Xen. Provides products that are commercial extensions of Xen focused on Windows virtualization. XenSource was recently acquired by Citrix.

OpenVZ: An open source product providing operating system virtualization. Available for both Windows and Linux

SWsoft: The commercial sponsor of OpenVZ. Provides commercial version of OpenVZ called Virtuozzo.

OpenSolaris: The open source version of Sun s Solaris operating system provides operating system virtualization and will also provide Xen support in an upcoming release.

Virtualization Project Steps

After you ve evaluated virtualization and want to move forward with it, it s time to implement a virtualization plan. Don t jump right in, the first steps are to create a virtualization project using these five steps:

Evaluate your current server workloads.

Determine whether virtualization can help you and figure out what your potential virtualization use cases might be.

Define your system architecture.

What form of virtualization will you use, and what kind of use case do you need to support?

Select your virtualization software and hosting hardware.

Carefully evaluate the virtualization software s capabilities to ensure that it supports your use cases. Be sure to look at the new virtualization-enabled hardware systems.

Migrate your existing servers to the new virtualization environment.

Decide whether some of the new migration products can help you move your systems or if you need to move them manually in either case, create a project plan to ensure everything is covered

Administer your virtualized environment.

Decide whether the virtualization product management tools are sufficient for your needs or whether you should look to more general system management tools to monitor your environment.

Virtualization Mini-Glossary

To help you get a better understanding and expand your knowledge of virtualization, get to know these useful terms and how they apply to virtualization and its process:

Baremetal: Virtualized servers in which the virtualization software is installed directly on the machine rather than on an operating system. Because it installs on the machine, it is said to reside on bare metal.

Client virtualization: Using virtualization to enable a client device (like a laptop) to support isolated operating environments. Client virtualization is often used to move workloads into isolated environments to reduce system administration requirements.

P2V: Shorthand for physical to virtual. P2V stands for the process of migrating systems from the physical hardware they originally ran on to virtual operating environments running in a virtualized environment.

Server virtualization: Running virtualization software on server machines in order to host multiple operating system environments on a single piece of hardware.

Storage virtualization: Using shared storage located on individual servers so that multiple servers can share a single storage device. Storage virtualization is often implemented after initial server virtualization efforts in order to centralize resources and reduce storage administration work.

Citrix api #xen, #xenproject, #virtualization, #hypervisor, #linux, #bsd, #cloud

Open source software to build private and public clouds

Note that we never really had a clear name for the XAPI project. The project was initially named after XCP, which is essentially a distribution of the Hypervisor, the XAPI toolstack and various other components. Later, the project also delivered packages into Linux distributions. This has created some confusion in the community! To make this clearer, the project team proposes to name the project after the XAPI toolstack. In other words, the project would be named after the codebase instead of one deliverable that the project produces.

What is the XAPI Project?

The XAPI project is a sub-project (or team) of the Xen Project effort that develops the enterprise ready XAPI toolstack. The hypervisor used with the XAPI toolstack consolidates server workloads, enables savings in power, cooling, and management costs and thus contributing to environmentally sustainable computing, an increased ability to adapt to ever-changing IT environments, an optimized use of existing hardware, and an improved level of IT reliability.

The XAPI team also develops tooling, agents and libraries that are needed to operate a XAPI based system.

What is XAPI?

The Xen Project Management API (XAPI ) is:

  • A Xen Project Toolstack that exposes the XAPI interface. When we refer to XAPI as a toolstack, we typically include all dependencies and components that are needed for XAPI to operate (e.g. xenopsd).
  • An interface for remotely configuring and controlling virtualised guests running on a Xen-enabled host. XAPI is the core component of XenServer and XCP .

XAPI adds additional functionality compared to other Xen Project toolstacks, including:

  • Extending the software to cover multiple hosts
  • Enhancing the VM lifecycle, including live snapshots, VM checkpointing, and VM migration
  • Enabling resource pools to include live migration, auto configuration, and disaster recovery
  • Allowing flexible storage and networking including integrated Open vSwitch support and storage XenMotion® live Migration (cross-pool migration, VDI migration)
  • Enabling event tracking, with progress and notification
  • Creating upgrade and patching capabilities
  • Facilitating real-time performance monitoring and alerting
  • Integrations with cloud orchestration stacks
  • Built-in support and templates for Windows and Linux guests


Getting XAPI

The XAPI team delivers XAPI as packages into Linux distributions. You can also get XAPI is an out-of-the box installable ISO from XenServer.org (and older version of XAPI from this website through XCP). XAPI can be obtained in the following ways:

  • XAPI is delivered as a source distribution by the XAPI project (see downloads ). XAPI source releases are the basis for other XAPI deliverables.
  • XAPI toolstack packages in Linux (or XAPI packages) enable you to build an XenServer-like environment from packages that are distributed via your host operating system’s package manager. XAPI packages are only available from supported Linux distributions (currently Debian and Ubuntu). Using XAPI packages provides more flexibility in tailoring your environment to your needs, but comes at the cost of less functionality and a more complex set-up. For more information see XAPI for Debian based distributions and XAPI variants.
  • In June 2013, XenServer was fully open sourced. which means you can get an source distribution of XAPI from XenServer.org. Note that this removed the need to deliver the XCP as a separate open source distribution on this website (also see FAQ ).
  • Before June 2013, XenServer was not fully open sourced and a subset of XenServer called XCP was made available for download from this website. The Xen Project website will continue to host these binaries, but new binaries will not be made available on this site (also see FAQ ). This version of XCP installs onto your host from an ISO, providing a complete enterprise-ready out-of-the-box server virtualization and cloud computing platform after install.

XenServer Downloads