African Timelines Part IV: Anti-Colonialism – Reconstruction #northpark #edu


Part IV: Anti-Colonialism
19th to mid-20th centuries
African TimelinesTable of ContentsHistory, Orature, Literature, Film
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British abolish slavery in West Indies.
Emancipation of slaves in the United States in midst of Civil War.

Written Swahili poetry of Eastern and Southern African moves beyond Arabic themes to takes up such indigenous Bantu forms as ritual songs. The great religious poem,Utendi wa Inkishafi(Soul’s Awakening), written by Sayyid Abdallah bin Nasir, illustrates the vanity of earthly life through an account of the fall of the city-state of Pate.

1936 postage stamp of Zanzibar, a Swahili city, celebrating the Silver Jubilee of Sultan Kalif bin Harub ( British Library, Africa Collections: Prints, Drawings, Photographs):

Black African journalism and secular literatureemerge by writers educated in Europe or in European mission and government schools of the subSaharan colonies; e.g. in the Gold Coast [Ghana], newspapers established offering stories and Poets Corner, using British literary models but putting to new African uses. Africans increasingly publish creative writings in a number of African and European languages. By 1880s, literature of self-glorification and justification of Africanness prepares the way for resistance literature rejecting British and European culture.

TheNew Era, established in 1855, was the first newspaper in Sierra Leone to be owned by a private individual. The independent African newspaper press was used as a means of expressing opposition to various of the local governors :
Front page of New Era. vol. 3, no. 14, 29 June 1857
( British Library, Africa Collections: Prints, Drawings, Photographs):

Project Gutenberg at SAILOR: Maryland’s Online Public Information Network, offers David Livingstone’sTravels and Researches in South Africa; Including a Sketch of Sixteen Years’ Residence in the Interior of Africa, and a Journey from the Cape of Good Hope to Loanda on the West Coast; Thence Across the Continent, Down the River Zambesi, to the Eastern Ocean . (London, 1857):
Pathway. Project Gutenberg Electronic Texts: Listing by Author L Livingstone

Global European Imperialism at its height: The scramble for Africa proceeds, rationalized as a civilizing mission based on white supremacy. Europeans assert their spheres of interest in African colonies arbitrarily, cutting across traditionally established boundaries, homelands, and ethnic groupings of African peoples and cultures. Following a divide and rule theory, Europeans promote traditional inter-ethnic hostilities. The European onslaught of Africa that began in the mid 1400s progressed to various conquests over the continent, and culminated over 400 years later with the partitioning of Africa. Armed with guns, fortified by ships, driven by the industry of capitalist economies in search of cheap raw materials, and unified by a Christian and racist ideology against the African ‘heathen,’ aggressive European colonial interests followed their earlier merchant and missionary inroads into Africa
–Prof. Malaika Mutere, Howard Univ. African Culture Aesthetics, African Odyssey Interactive:
[Thank you, Lisa, for repairing this link.

In a late essay, Joseph Conrad described the actions of King Leopold II and other imperialists as . the vilest scramble for loot that ever disfigured the history of human conscience and geographical exploration.

Symbols of Royal Power: Soul Washer’s Badge (Detroit Institute of Arts’ African, Oceanic, and New World Cultures: African Art), taken from the Asante king’s bedroom by Lieutenant R.C. Annesley of the 79th Queens Own Cameron Highlanders, when a British military expedition captured the Asante capital of Kumasi ( Gold Coast, now Ghana) on February 4, 1874.)

Mapping Colonial Conquest.
Consider the map of the world, with its 190 or so countries, each signified by a bold and uniform color: this map, with which all of us have grown up, is generally an invention of modernism, specifically of European colonialism.
–Robert Kaplan, The Coming Anarchy Atlantic Monthly Feb. 1994. Rpt. Atlantic Online

Map of Africa – 1885from Black s General Atlas of the World. While this map of Scottish cartographer John Bartholomew was being printed in Edinburgh, representatives of the major European powers were gathered in Berlin poring over similar maps and drawing lines on them lines that would become the political boundaries for colonial empires that would dominate African history for the next 75 years. Teaching with Maps. Newberry Library, 2000

Gallica (Bibliotheque nationale, France – in French: ) offers online exhibits of images from 19th century books and journals. Even if you can’t read French, review illustrations from African travelogues and ethnographies from the Library of the Musee de l’Homme – click on thumbnails to view larger images – including:

Color illustrations of Senegalese women and men from Esquisses s�n�galaises, Physionomie dupays, Peuplades, Commerce, Religion, Pass� et avenir, R�cits et l�gendes . by L’Abb� P. David Boilat (Paris: P. Bertrand, 1853): O=02300128

The Berlin Conference: Intense rivalries among Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Spain, and Portugal for additional African territory, and the ill-defined boundaries of their various holdings, instigate the Berlin conference. Here the powers of Europe, together with the United States, defined their spheres of influence and laid down rules for future occupation on the coasts of Africa and for navigation of the Zaire and Niger rivers. No African states were invited to the Berlin conference, and none signed these agreements. Whenever possible, Africans resisted decisions made in Europe, but revolts in Algeria, in the western Sudan, in Dahomey, by the Matabele (Ndebele) and Shona, in Ashantiland, in Sierra Leone, and in the Fulani Hausa states were eventually defeated.

  • Berlin Conference: 1884Africa South of the Sahara Chronology (David W. Koeller, History Dept. Northpark Univ. 1996-1999):
  • Scramble for Africa(Brett N. Silva, IB History Page, Pleasant Valley High School, Chico, CA)with informative links:


  • Imperialism in Africa, with links to student projects(also Brett N. Silva, IB History Page):
  • The Berlin Conference and the Diplomacy of the European ‘Scramble for Africa’(Dr. David Leaver, History Dept. Raymond Walters College, Univ. of Cincinnati)

  • Correspondence Education in India #new #correspondence #courses, #correspondence #education #in #india #methods #of #correspondence #education


    Correspondence Education – Introduction

    Lamentably in a developing country like India, higher education has generally remained confined to a particular section of the society, who has both the resources and the time to avail of it. A large part of our population, especially those belonging to the rural areas has been bereft of higher education. In an effort to provide a solution to this problem, efforts have been made to democratize education through novel mode of education i.e. “correspondence education”.

    Correspondence Education is a method of providing education to nonresident students, who receive lessons and exercises through mails and, upon completion, return them for analysis, criticism, and grading to the institute or university concerned. It is being increasingly used by students, business and industry in training programmes, by men and women in the armed forces, and by the governments of many nations as part of their educational program. It supplements other forms of education and makes independent study programs readily available.

    Correspondence education has opened a new window of opportunities for those who have craved for further studies. In a way it has helped numerous professionals, dropouts (school college), housewives, etc to accomplish their unfinished dreams. It has immense relevance, particularly in a country like India, where pursuing education is a pricey affair. We receive scores of career queries everyday, which again is a shinning testimony of the great curiosity among the discerning users to know about the various options that education has to offer.

    Originally correspondence courses were largely confined to vocational subjects. However these days, universities and institutes also offer such courses in virtually any field of study and possibly in all levels. Many of the subjects are not generally given in residence schools.

    Indian Scenario

    In India correspondence education has a very long history. After the concept of open universities emerged, it lost some point to them. However, these open Universities are also offering correspondence course to students. But some regular Universities like University of Delhi, Jamia Millia University, and Madurai Kamaraj University are in the top list of correspondence course.

    Global Perspective

    Correspondence courses were first offered in Great Britain, Germany, and the United States but spread rapidly throughout the world. The correspondence movement emerged in the mid-19th century, fuelled by the need for an educated trade and working class brought on by industrial and urban development, and facilitated by the development of improved printing and postal services.

    Technological advances and a quantum leap in the electronic and communications field has changed the face of education today, most particularly that of correspondence education. It is important to note that over the past two decades many correspondence study programs have developed significantly greater use of interactive educational technologies such as audio teleconferencing and computer conferencing.


    Correspondence education is an independent mode of education, which does not require a real-time interaction between students and teachers. In this education system, a student can study at home, receive the exam paper by post and send back assignments by post.

    Instruction may be entirely by correspondence or by a combination of home study and resident seminars or laboratory work. It may include sound records or tapes, slides, films, videotapes or videodisks, teaching machines, computers, and the use of telephone, radio and television at times. The advent of electronic mail in the late 20th century the advent of electronic mail (correspondence delivered by means of electronic printing or display devices) has remarkably increased the communication between the student and the university or institute concerned.

    Some courses may also include kits of tools or instruments and materials to be processed, as well as texts and study guides. Courses in Braille and on records or cassettes are also available for the visually challenged.


    The flexibility of time helps the students to prepare for the exam comfortably. The systematic instructional material, instructional design and self-instructional material help the independent learners in a significant way. The strategy, stages and steps in effective lesson writing are really helping the students to develop themselves. It is also very economical, which can be afforded by all sections of the people.

    Being an `industrialized’ form of education, it has reduced human contacts which occur only in the feedback stage of the process. However this is taken care of by means of periodic assignments for submission.

    In a nut shell the merits of correspondence may be listed as below:

    • Student is more active and self directed in learning environment
    • Well planned instructional design and self-instructional material
    • Easy schedule
    • Students can engage courses at home
    • Economical and affordable for every one
    • Can pursue a job along with education
    • Suitable for Drop out students, housewives and others doing a job who could not complete their education for some reason.

    Suitable For

    • Drop out students
    • Economically Weaker and working professional

    Universities Offering Correspondence Education

    The following Institutes / Universities provide Correspondence Education in India. To know more about the courses / Institute / University please select from the following.

    MSU Police – Committed to Courtesy and Excellence #www #mail #msu #edu

    Welcome to the MSU Police Department

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    Committed to being a world-class department and an innovative leader among University police departments by hiring and promoting talented officers and professional staff, employing the highest standards of performance, implementing best practices in policing, encouraging accountability, and reflecting the values of a global University. The Michigan State University Police Department has an international reputation for its proactive-based philosophy of policing that strives to strengthen relationships and engage community partners in developing strategies to reduce crime.

    The Michigan State University Police Department strives to adhere to the highest ethical standards and reflect the diversity of its community members.

    Know the Law

    The Office for International Students and Scholars wants to ensure the safety of all international students and scholars at MSU and has partnered with us to bring a series of videos that explain various laws. Check out the videos at

    OISS Know the Law

    MSU s Anti-harassment and Non-discrimination Statement

    Michigan State University welcomes you to the start of a new academic year on campus. The start of a new semester is an appropriate time to remind members of our community about the campus offices and resources available to respond to incidents of relationship violence and sex discrimination, including sexual assault.
    View MSU’s anti-harassment and non-discrimination statement.

    See Something, Say Something

    If you witness a crime in progress, always call 911. You can also report suspicious activity or tips by texting the word MSUPD, along with a message, to 274637. This is an anonymous text-a-tip service. You can also send a tip through the Submit Tips app on our Facebook page at .

    Active Violence Safety

    In general, how you respond to an active shooter will be dictated by the specific circumstances of the encounter, bearing in mind there could be more than one shooter involved in the same situation. If you find yourself involved in an active shooter situation, try to remain calm and use these guidelines to help you plan a strategy for survival.
    Read the Active Violence Safety Guidelines

    Active Violence Training

    The Michigan State University Police Department offers the course “Recognizing and Preventing Violence in the Workplace” through MSU Human Resource Development.
    In this course, MSU Police Officers provide instruction on how to identify behaviors of concern, give tips on intervention, and will give valuable training on how to respond during a violent incident such as an active shooter in your workplace.
    If you are interested in attending this training please visit MSU Human Resources for more information.

    It s On Us

    As part of its commitment to prevent, respond to and educate about sexual assault, Michigan State University is joining a White House campaign aimed at raising awareness about sexual assault and enabling all members of the campus community to take a stand.
    Check out It s On Us for more information.