Identity theft financial definition of Identity theft #definition #identity #theft


Identity theft

Identity Theft

A crime in which a person pretends to be another person for the purpose of using his/her financial information for personal gain. Identity theft can be fairly basic; for example, one may steal and use a credit card. Often, however, identity theft involves using computer programs to find a person’s financial information and conduct large transactions with that person’s money. Identity theft is a serious crime, as it can ruin the victim’s credit. making it difficult to obtain a loan when one is needed. Many banks and credit card companies provide identity theft protection to reduce a client’s liability for identity theft and to minimize its occurrence.

Identity theft.

Identity theft is the unauthorized use of your personal information, such as your name, address, Social Security number, or credit account information.

People usually steal your identity to make purchases or obtain credit, though they may also use the data to apply for a driver’s license or other form of official identification.

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References in periodicals archive ?

Identity theft service providers that offer assistance to victims should explain what they do to help them and any limitations or exclusions that may apply.

Experts estimate identity theft costs businesses and consumers more than $50 billion a year nationwide as thieves fraudulently use others’ personal information — such as Social Security and driver’s license numbers — to obtain everything from credit cards to goods and services.

The institutions to blame for identity theft aren’t currently the ones who pay the bulk of the price.

Being denied credit or employment is another common method of discovery for identity theft victims.

In one case, up to $25,000 in identity theft coverage has been added to a homeowners policy without additional cost.

Details for the Advanced Two-Day Identity Theft Summit in Las Vegas, Nev.

Department of Education has a printable brochure on identity theft that it encourages schools to circulate.

Identity theft strikes about 10 million Americans each year, according to a study by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC).

The FTC’s Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act (FACTA) is one of several laws intended to combat consumer fraud, identity theft and protect privacy.

4 million Americans say they have been victims of identity theft or fraud since 1990, with more than 13 million since January 2001 and rising.

Contact your state attorney general’s office to find out whether your state has laws related to identity theft or visit www.

Such stories are common to law enforcement authorities, who, almost daily, receive calls and complaints pertaining to identity theft across the country.

Advertise definition #advertise #definition




The public notification of a product’s availability and related activities for its promotion, usually in the form of a paid announcement, which may be printed or broadcast.
Advertising types that impact on health care
• Physician advertising
• Prescription drug advertising In the US, the FDA regulates the pharmaceutical industry and the manner in which it promotes its products, and requires a “fair balance” in advertising, such that all activities must present an even account of the clinically relevant information, i.e. the risks and benefits, that would influence the physician’s prescribing decision.
• Abuse substance advertising for tobacco and alcohol


The public notification of a product’s availability and related activities for its promotion Medical communication A public notice, usually in the form of a paid announcement, which may be printed or broadcast. See ‘Coming soon advertising’ Direct-to-consumer advertising, Institutional advertising, Introductory advertising, Remedial advertising, Reminder advertising, Sexist advertising. Tobacco advertising.


n a paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor.


the making of public statements about services offered and facilities available in a professional practice. Personal advertisement in this way is frowned upon because of the risk that there will be misrepresentation and that it will unfairly attract business to the detriment of the client. The contrary view is that the public is disadvantaged because they will not be aware of the range of services offered and the fees attached to them. In most countries now, in which it used to be controlled by the registering authority, the scope of personal advertising is left to the discretion of the individual. Corporate advertising which advertises the profession as a whole is encouraged.

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Spontaneous Abortion – Gynecology and Obstetrics – Merck Manuals Professional Edition #missed #abortion #definition


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Spontaneous Abortion

Spontaneous abortion is noninduced embryonic or fetal death or passage of products of conception before 20 wk gestation. Threatened abortion is vaginal bleeding without cervical dilation occurring during this time frame and indicating that spontaneous abortion may occur in a woman with a confirmed viable intrauterine pregnancy. Diagnosis is by clinical criteria and ultrasonography. Treatment is usually expectant observation for threatened abortion and, if spontaneous abortion has occurred or appears unavoidable, observation or uterine evacuation.

Fetal death and early delivery are classified as follows:

Abortion: Death of the fetus or passage of products of conception (fetus and placenta) before 20 wk gestation

Fetal demise (stillbirth): Fetal death after 20 wk

Preterm delivery: Passage of a live fetus between 20 and 37 wk (see Preterm Labor )

Abortions may be classified as early or late, spontaneous or induced for therapeutic or elective reasons (see Induced Abortion ), threatened or inevitable, incomplete or complete, recurrent (also called recurrent pregnancy loss—see Recurrent Pregnancy Loss ), missed, or septic (see Table: Classification of Abortion ).

Classification of Abortion

About 20 to 30% of women with confirmed pregnancies bleed during the first 20 wk of pregnancy; half of these women spontaneously abort. Thus, incidence of spontaneous abortion is about 10 to 15% in confirmed pregnancies. Incidence in all pregnancies is probably higher because some very early abortions are mistaken for a late menstrual period.


Isolated spontaneous abortions may result from certain viruses—most notably cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus, parvovirus, and rubella virus—or from disorders that can cause sporadic abortions or recurrent pregnancy loss (eg, chromosomal or mendelian abnormalities, luteal phase defects). Other causes include immunologic abnormalities, major trauma, and uterine abnormalities (eg, fibroids, adhesions). Most often, the cause is unknown.

Risk factors include

History of spontaneous abortion

Use of certain drugs (eg, cocaine, alcohol, high doses of caffeine)

A poorly controlled chronic disorder (eg, diabetes, hypertension, overt thyroid disorders) in the mother

Subclinical thyroid disorders, a retroverted uterus, and minor trauma have not been shown to cause spontaneous abortions.

Symptoms and Signs

Symptoms include crampy pelvic pain, bleeding, and eventually expulsion of tissue. Late spontaneous abortion may begin with a gush of fluid when the membranes rupture. Hemorrhage is rarely massive. A dilated cervix indicates that abortion is inevitable.

If products of conception remain in the uterus after spontaneous abortion, vaginal bleeding may occur, sometimes after a delay of hours to days. Infection may also develop, causing fever, pain, and sometimes sepsis.


For threatened abortion. treatment is observation. No evidence suggests that bed rest decreases risk of subsequent completed abortion.

For inevitable, incomplete, or missed abortions, treatment is uterine evacuation or waiting for spontaneous passage of the products of conception. Evacuation usually involves suction curettage at 16 to 23 wk (for treatment of late fetal death, see Stillbirth ). The later the uterus is evacuated, the greater the likelihood of placental bleeding, uterine perforation by long bones of the fetus, and difficulty dilating the cervix. These complications are reduced by preoperative use of osmotic cervical dilators (eg, laminaria), misoprostol. or mifepristone (RU 486).

If complete abortion is suspected, uterine evacuation need not be done routinely. Uterine evacuation can be done if bleeding occurs and/or if other signs indicate that products of conception may be retained.

After an induced or spontaneous abortion, parents may feel grief and guilt. They should be given emotional support and, in the case of spontaneous abortions, reassured that their actions were not the cause. Formal counseling is rarely indicated but should be made available.

Key Points

Spontaneous abortion probably occurs in about 10 to 15% of pregnancies.

Also of Interest

Merck and the Merck Manuals

Merck Co. Inc. Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Manual was first published in 1899 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America.Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge.

2017 Merck Sharp Dohme Corp. a subsidiary of Merck Co. Inc. Kenilworth, NJ, USA

Key terms explained – Courses, Subjects and Qualifications – University of Canterbury – New Zealand


University of Canterbury

Key terms explained

Definition of a qualification, subject and course

At UC you enrol in courses on particular topics within wider subject areas. Successfully completed courses build towards a degree or other qualification.


A qualification is the successfully completed outcome of a programme of study that allows you to graduate.

For more information on qualifications see Types of qualifications .


A subject is a particular area of study that the University offers courses in, eg, Accounting, French, Geology or Mathematics. While you can study many subjects at 100-level, some subjects, eg, Counselling, Diplomacy and International Relations, Fire Engineering and Journalism are only available at honours, graduate or postgraduate level. See subject list A-Z for a complete list of subjects.


A course is the study of a particular topic within a wider subject area and is the basic building block of a qualification. Once you have decided on the degrees and subjects that interest you, you need to decide on the courses to enrol in for your first year. A typical course includes lectures; assessment such as assignments, essays, reports, tests and exams; and either tutorials or laboratories. Most first-year courses are taught by a team of lecturers and tutors.

Most courses are taught in Semester 1 (February–June), Semester 2 (July–November), throughout the Whole Year (Semester 1 and Semester 2, February–November) or over summer (November–February). However, dates for College of Education courses may differ. Some courses are offered more than once in the same year, for example, in Semester 1 and in Semester 2.

The building blocks of course levels

At UC course levels range from 100 – 700-level. This covers a range of first degrees, certificates and diplomas (undergraduate qualifications) and further qualifications at postgraduate and graduate level. One or more courses may be offered across different levels in each subject.

Courses are grouped into levels. Courses which you will usually study in your first year are called 100-level courses, eg, SPAN 101 is the code for a first-year Spanish course. Courses at 200-level begin with a ‘2’, eg, SPAN 201 is the code for a 200-level Spanish course, and 300-level courses begin with a ‘3’, eg, SPAN 301. You usually have to pass certain courses in a subject – called prerequisites – before you can continue on to 200-level courses in your second year. For instance, if you want to take CHIN 301 (a 300-level Chinese language course), you have to pass CHIN 201 first.

Four letter course codes

Each course has a four letter course code which represents the subject area. For example, the four letter course code for courses in Biological Sciences is BIOL (lower case biol works too).

Each course has an occurrence

A course occurrence code – eg, CHEM111 – 12S1 (C) – tells you:

  • what subject area the course is in (CHEM: Chemistry)
  • at what level (111: 100-level)
  • when a course will be offered (12S1: 2012, Semester 1)
  • where the course will be offered (C: Christchurch).

Some courses may display more than one occurrence (eg, semester one (12S1) and semester two (12S2)). You will need to use the correct course occurrence code when you apply to enrol.


Each course has a point value that reflects the workload for the course. All courses have a point value of 15 or multiples of 15.

When you pass a course the points are credited towards your degree. If you fail a course you do not get any points. You must complete a certain number of points to complete your degree.

Definition of undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate


The first degree you study towards at university is called an undergraduate degree, eg, Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Laws. Certificates and diplomas are also undergraduate qualifications. An undergraduate student is one who is studying for for their first (bachelor’s) degree, or a certificate or diploma.

Graduate and postgraduate

A graduate is a person who has met the requirements for a degree and been awarded it.

Postgraduate and graduate courses can only be taken by students who have already completed a bachelor’s degree, ie, graduates.

Postgraduate qualifications involve more advanced study in the area of your first (undergraduate) degree. They include honours and master’s degrees, postgraduate certificates and diplomas, and doctorates (PhDs).

Graduate qualifications normally involve study in an area other than the area of your first degree. They allow you to change subject areas and some prepare you for employment in a certain field, eg, journalism, teaching. Graduate qualifications include graduate certificates and diplomas.

Lte definition, lte definition.#Lte #definition


The Mobile


(Submission, June 2013)

In LTE-Advanced focus is on higher capacity:The driving force to further develop LTE towards LTE–Advanced – LTE Release10 was to provide higher bitrates in a cost efficient way and, at the same time, completely fulfil the requirements set by ITU for IMT Advanced, also referred to as 4G.

  • Increased peak data rate, DL 3 Gbps, UL 1.5 Gbps
  • Higher spectral efficiency, from a maximum of 16bps/Hz in R8 to 30 bps/Hz in R10
  • Increased number of simultaneously active subscribers
  • Improved performance at cell edges, e.g. for DL 2×2 MIMO at least 2.40 bps/Hz/cell.

The main new functionalities introduced in LTE-Advanced are Carrier Aggregation (CA), enhanced use of multi-antenna techniques and support for Relay Nodes (RN).

Carrier Aggregation

The most straightforward way to increase capacity is to add more bandwidth. Since it is important to keep backward compatibility with R8 and R9 mobiles the increase in bandwidth in LTE-Advanced is provided through aggregation of R8/R9 carriers. Carrier aggregation can be used for both FDD and TDD.

Lte definition

For practical reasons different carrier aggregation configurations – specified by e.g. combinations of E-UTRA operating band and the number of component carriers – are introduced in steps. In R10 there are two component carriers in the DL and only one in the UL (hence no carrier aggregation in the UL), in R11 there are two component carriers DL and one or two component carriers in the UL when carrier aggregation is used.

When carrier aggregation is used there is a number of serving cells, one for each component carrier. The coverage of the serving cells may differ – due to e.g. component carrier frequencies. The RRC connection is handled by one cell, the Primary serving cell, served by the Primary component carrier (DL and UL PCC). The other component carriers are all referred to as Secondary component carrier (DL and possibly UL SCC), serving the Secondary serving cells.

Lte definition

Introduction of carrier aggregation influences mainly MAC and the physical layer protocol, but also the RLC buffer must be larger and RRC must be able to make decisions about addition/removal of secondary CC.

MIMO, Multiple Input Multiple Output – or spatial multiplexing

MIMO is used to increase the overall bitrate through transmission of two (or more) different data streams on two (or more) different antennas – using the same resources in both frequency and time, separated only through use of different reference signals – to be received by two or more antennas, see figure 4.

Lte definition

One or two transport blocks are transmitted per TTI. A major change in LTE-Advanced is the introduction of 8×8 MIMO in the DL and 4×4 in the UL.

Lte definition

To be able to adjust the type of multi-antenna transmission scheme, according to e.g. radio environment, a number of different Transmission Modes (TM) has been defined. The UE will through RRC signalling be informed about the transmission mode to use. In the DL there are nine different transmission modes, where TM1-7 were introduced in R8, TM8 was introduced in R9 and TM9 was introduced in R10. In the UL there are TM1 and TM2, where TM1, the default, was introduced in R8 and TM2 was introduced in R10. The different transmission modes differ in;

  • Number of layers (streams, or rank)
  • Antenna ports used
  • Type of reference signal, Cell-specific Reference Signal (CRS) or Demodulation Reference Signal (DM-RS), introduced in R10.
  • Precoding type

Through the introduction of TM9 8×8 MIMO is supported DL, and through the introduction of TM2 UL use of 4×4 MIMO UL is enabled. Naturally it is also required that the UE support this. In R10 three new UE categories are introduced, category 6, 7 and 8 – where UE category 8 supports the maximum number of CC and 8×8 spatial multiplexing.

Lte definition

Relay Nodes

In LTE-Advanced, the possibility for efficient heterogeneous network planning – i.e. a mix of large and small cells – is increased by introduction of Relay Nodes (RNs). The Relay Nodes are low power base stations that will provide enhanced coverage and capacity at cell edges, and hot-spot areas and it can also be used to connect to remote areas without fibre connection. The Relay Node is connected to the Donor eNB (DeNB) via a radio interface, Un, which is a modification of the E-UTRAN air interface Uu. Hence in the Donor cell the radio resources are shared between UEs served directly by the DeNB and the Relay Nodes. When the Uu and Un use different frequencies the Relay Node is referred to as a Type 1a RN, for Type 1 RN Uu and Un utilize the same frequencies, see figure 7. In the latter case there is a high risk for self interference in the Relay Node, when receiving on Uu and transmitting on Un at the same time (or vice versa). This can be avoided through time sharing between Uu and Un, or having different locations of the transmitter and receiver. The RN will to a large extent support the same functionalities as the eNB – however the DeNB will be responsible for MME selection.

Lte definition

Coordinated Multi Point operation (CoMP) – R11

LTE-Advanced continues to evolve. New CA configurations are added (additions of new bands for CA are not bound to specific releases) and there are new features introduced in coming releases of the 3GPP specifications, such as Coordinated Multi Point (CoMP) introduced in R11.

Lte definition

b) Dynamic Point Selection; two TX points are ready to transmit, but only one will be scheduled in each subframe.

Further reading

  • TR 36.806 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Relay architectures for E-UTRA (LTE-Advanced)
  • TR 36.808 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Carrier Aggregation; Base Station (BS) radio transmission and reception
  • TR 36.814 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Further advancements for E-UTRA physical layer aspects
  • TR 36.815 Further Advancements for E-UTRA; LTE-Advanced feasibility studies in RAN WG4
  • TR 36.817 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Uplink multiple antenna transmission; Base Station (BS) radio transmission and reception
  • TR 36.819 Coordinated multi-point operation for LTE physical layer aspects
  • TR 36.823 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Carrier Aggregation Enhancements; UE and BS radio transmission and reception
  • TR 36.826 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Relay radio transmission and reception
  • TR 36.871 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Downlink Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) enhancement for LTE-Advanced
  • TR 36.912 Feasibility study for Further Advancements for E-UTRA (LTE-Advanced)
  • TR 36.913 Requirements for further advancements for Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) (LTE-Advanced)
  • TS 36.101 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception
  • TS 36.211 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical channels and modulation
  • TS 36.212 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Multiplexing and channel coding
  • TS 36.213 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical layer procedures
  • TS 36.216 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical layer for relaying operation
  • TS 36.221 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol specification
  • TS 36.300 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) and Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN); Overall description; Stage 2
  • TS 36.306 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); User Equipment (UE) radio access capabilities
  • TS 36.331 Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Radio resource Control (RRC) protocol specification

Lte definition

See the 3GPP RAN Chairmans’ presentation to the ITU-R WP 5D Third Workshop on IMT-Advanced, 2009 – “Proposal for Candidate Radio Interface Technologies for IMT‐Advanced Based on LTE Release 10 and Beyond

Business Intelligence #business #intelligence,what #is,definition,business #intelligence #software,business #intelligence #solutions,buisness,inteligence,busines


Business Intelligence

An enterprise Business Intelligence solution must satisfy the reporting and analysis needs of everyone in the organization, from front line workers to executives to analysts.

Business Intelligence (BI) is a broad category of computer software solutions that enables a company or organization to gain insight into its critical operations through reporting applications and analysis tools. BI applications may include a variety of components such as tabular reports, spreadsheets, charts, and dashboards. Although traditional business intelligence systems were delivered via host terminals or paper reports, the typical modern deployment of a BI application is over the web, via Internet or intranet connections. It is also possible, and becoming more popular, to develop interactive BI apps optimized for mobile devices such as tablets and smart phones, and for e-mail.

Well-designed BI applications can give anyone in your company the ability to make better decisions by quickly understanding the various “information assets” in your organization and how these interact with each other. These assets can include customer databases, supply chain information, personnel data, manufacturing, product data, sales and marketing activity, as well as any other source of information critical to your operation. A robust BI application, which includes integration and data cleansing functions, can allow you to integrate these disparate data sources into a single coherent framework for real-time reporting and detailed analysis by anyone in your extended enterprise – customers, partners, employees, managers, and executives.

Check out these live Business Intelligence demos for examples of reports, charts, scorecards and dashboards that satisfy diverse end user requirements on both mobile devices and desktop computers.

WebFOCUS – Information Builders’ comprehensive suite of BI software and the industry’s most secure and flexible solution – provides comprehensive BI functionality for many different classes of users, from the corporate executive to the assembly line worker; from the financial analyst sitting at his desk to the sales rep who’s always on the road. WebFOCUS allows organizations to leverage any data source, transform it into useful information, and deliver it in an actionable format to any end user, both within and outside the enterprise.

WebFOCUS reduces the cost and time for development and deployment of BI applications, while providing powerful, scalable, enterprise-wide BI solutions.

WebFOCUS BI software will empower your organization to:

  • Process requests quickly, intelligently, and efficiently
  • Respond faster and more efficiently to changing conditions affecting your organization
  • Make your greatest asset – information – part of your organization’s natural culture
  • Transform raw data into intuitive, illustrative enterprise reports quickly and easily
  • Enhance reporting systems by incorporating transactional forms, as well as data maintenance and update capabilities
  • Deliver usable information to both local and remote workers in the format that works best for them, whether it’s html, Microsoft Excel, Adobe PDF, e-mail or active technologies with built-in analytics capabilities.

To find out more about BI, read our white paper “Worst Practices in Business Intelligence: Why BI Applications Succeed Where BI Tools Fail .” In it you’ll see the most common mistakes made in BI deployments and how to avoid them so your BI applications will be as successful and effective as possible.

Define network software #networking, #online #dictionary, #english #dictionary, #networking #definition, #define #networking, #definition #of #networking,



any netlike combination of filaments, lines, veins, passages, or the like:

a network of arteries; a network of sewers under the city.

Radio and Television.

  1. a group of transmitting stations linked by wire or microwave relay so that the same program can be broadcast or telecast by all.
  2. a company or organization that provides programs to be broadcast over these stations:

She was hired by the network as program coordinator.

Telecommunications, Computers. a system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunication equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information.

an association of individuals having a common interest, formed to provide mutual assistance, helpful information, or the like:

a network of recent college graduates.

a system of interrelated buildings, offices, stations, etc. especially over a large area or throughout a country, territory, region, etc.

a network of supply depots.

Electricity. an arrangement of conducting elements, as resistors, capacitors, or inductors, connected by conducting wire.

a netting or net.

verb (used without object)

to cultivate people who can be helpful to one professionally, especially in finding employment or moving to a higher position:

His business lunches were taken up with networking.

verb (used with object)

to place (as a program from a local radio or television station) in or on a network:

The station will try to network the local cooking show.

to connect to a network.

What is photon? Definition from, definition of surface waves.#Definition #of #surface #waves



Definition of surface waves

  • Share this item with your network:

internet meme

An Internet meme is a cultural artifact that spreads rapidly, reaching a very large digital audience within a short period of time. Because internet memes spread through online communities much like a disease spreads through an offline population, they are also referred to as viral content.

The photon is the fundamental particle of visible light.

In some ways, visible light behaves like a wave phenomenon, but in other respects it acts like a stream of high-speed, submicroscopic particles. Isaac Newton was one of the first scientists to theorize that light consists of particles. Modern physicists have demonstrated that the energy in any electromagnetic field is made up of discrete packets. The term photon (meaning visible-light particle ) was coined for these energy packets. Particle-like behavior is not restricted to the visible-light portion of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum, however. Radio waves, infrared rays, visible light, ultraviolet rays, X rays, and gamma rays all consist of photons, each of which contains a particular amount of energy that depends on the wavelength.

Photons travel through empty space at a speed of approximately 186,282miles (299,792 kilometers) per second. This is true no matter what the electromagnetic wavelength. In media other than a vacuum, the speed is reduced. For example, visible light travels more slowly through glass than through outer space. Radio waves travel more slowly through the polyethylene in a transmission line than they do through the atmosphere. The ratio of the speed of the photons in a particular medium to their speed in a vacuum is called the velocity factor . This factor is always between 0 and 1 (or 0 and 100 percent), and it depends to some extent on the wavelength.

The shorter the wavelength of an electromagnetic disturbance, the more energy each photon contains. In fact, this relationship is so precise that a mathematical formula applies. If e represents the energy (the unit of measurement is the joule) contained in each photon and s represents the electromagnetic wavelength (in meters), then

where h is Planck’s constant (approximately equal to6.626 times 10 -34 joule-second) and c is the speed of electromagnetic-field propagation in the medium in question (approximately 2.998 times 10 8 meters per second in a vacuum). A simpler formula applies to frequency. If f represents the frequency of an electromagnetic field (in hertz), then

The energy contained in a single photon does not depend on the intensity of the radiation. At any specific wavelength — say, the wavelength of light emitted by a helium-neon laser — every photon contains exactly the same amount of energy, whether the source appears as dim as a candle or as bright as the sun. The brilliance or intensity is a function of the number of photons striking a given surface area per unit time.

See a brief introduction to the history of light:

Malignant Lymphoma #definition #for #malignant


Malignant Lymphoma

What is malignant lymphoma?

Key points

  1. Malignant lymphoma is a malignant cancer in the body’s lymphatic system.
  2. The most common symptom is swollen glands.
  3. Treatment usually involves chemotherapy or radiation. The prognosis can be good, especially if you begin treatment early and the disease is only mildly aggressive.

Cancers that start anywhere in the body’s lymphatic system are called lymphomas. If they have the ability to spread, they are called malignant.

The lymphatic system runs throughout our bodies and is composed of lymphoid tissue, vessels, and fluid. Lymphoid tissue contains lymph nodes, which are part of the immune system. The immune system’s job is to produce blood cells and protect against harm from invading germs.

Cancers that begin in other organs and tissues, and then spread to the lymphatic system are not lymphomas. Lymphoma can, however, spread to other parts of the body.

The two main types of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Treatment options include chemotherapy and radiation. In many cases, lymphomas are curable.

Symptoms of malignant lymphoma

Symptoms can be mild and easily overlooked. The most obvious and common sign of lymphoma is swollen lymph nodes. These may be found in various parts of the body, including:

Other symptoms may include:

  • cough
  • shortness of breath
  • feeling tired
  • night sweats
  • itchy skin, rash
  • fever
  • weight loss

If you believe you have swollen lymph nodes, make an appointment to see your doctor. Having swollen lymph nodes doesn’t necessarily mean you have lymphoma. Lymph node inflammation has many causes.

Who gets malignant lymphoma?

Anyone can get malignant lymphoma. Doctors can’t always be certain what causes someone to get lymphoma. Some factors seem to increase your risk, including:

  • The risk may be higher in early or late adulthood.
  • The disease occurs at a slightly higher rate in males.
  • Your chances of developing NHL may increase as you grow older.
  • Other risk factors include:
    • exposure to radiation
    • previous cancer treatment
    • a weakened immune system

Both children and adults can get lymphomas, but NHL is not common in children.

Diagnosing malignant lymphoma

If you have swollen lymph nodes your doctor will want to determine the cause. If no obvious cause can be found upon physical examination, your doctor may order blood tests or other diagnostic testing. A lymph node biopsy may be necessary. This is a procedure in which your doctor removes cells from a lymph node and has them examined under a microscope,

This will determine if the cells are malignant or noncancerous.

A biopsy can also detect the difference between Hodgkin lymphoma and NHL, as well as their various sub-types. Along with imaging and blood tests, the biopsy results will help your doctor determine your course of treatment.

Types of malignant lymphoma

The two main types of malignant lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma (also known as Hodgkin disease) and NHL. The two types spread in different ways and respond differently to treatment. When lymphoma is of a slow-growing variety, it is referred to as low-grade. Aggressive, fast-growing types are called high-grade.

Hodgkin lymphoma

A lymphoma is classified as Hodgkin when there is an abnormal cell called Reed-Sternberg present. According to the American Cancer Society, about 95 percent of Hodgkin lymphoma patients are diagnosed with classic Hodgkin lymphoma. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin disease makes up the remaining 5 percent.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

All other types of lymphomas are classified as NHL. This is due to injury to the DNA of a lymphocyte progenitor and can’t be inherited. The Leukemia and Lymphoma Society reports that about 85 percent of people with NHL lymphoma have a B-cell type.

Another type of NHL, Waldenstr m macroglobulinemia. also called lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, starts in white blood cells. Your skin also harbors lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. Sometimes, NHL can begin on the skin. This is called lymphoma of the skin, or cutaneous lymphoma. Cancer that began elsewhere and spreads to the skin is not lymphoma of the skin.

There are approximately 60 subtypes of NHL.

What Is Load Balancer? Webopedia Definition #load #balancer, #load #balancer #definition, #server #load #balancer, #slb,


load balancer

Related Terms

A load balancer, or server load balancer (SLB), is a hardware or software-based device that efficiently distributes network or application traffic across a number of servers. With a load balancer, if a server’s performance suffers from excessive traffic or if it stops responding to requests, the load-balancing capabilities will automatically switch the requests to a different server.

In this way, load balancers improve the performance of networks and applications by automatically monitoring and managing application and network sessions.

In addition to providing simple distributed service to multiple servers, load balancers can help prevent denial-of-service attacks. allow legitimate users uninterrupted access to services, protect against single point of failure outages and prevent traffic bottlenecks to systems.

Types of Load Balancers and Application Delivery Controllers

Load balancers are frequently categorized as being Layer 4 or Layer 7 capable, in reference to the 7 Layers of the OSI Model. Layer 4 load balancers respond to data found in network and transport layer protocols such as TCP. IP. FTP and UDP. while Layer 7 load balancers distribute requests based upon data found in application layer protocols such as HTTP. as well as data within the application messages.

Load-balancing capabilities are found in hardware routers from vendors like F5, Cisco, Citrix and Kemp Technologies. Hardware load balancer devices have mostly evolved into what are now referred to as application delivery controllers (ADCs), but load balancing remains at the heart of ADCs.

Software-based load balancers from vendors like Zen, Resonate and NGINX provide load-balancing capabilities that are typically less expensive than hardware load balancer solutions, and they offer the flexibility of being easily deployed on-premises on existing hardware or in the cloud.

Additional types of load balancers marketed by vendors include virtual load balancers, cloud load balancers and load balancers for bare metal servers. Many load balancer vendors offer a variety of load balancer solutions that includes hardware and software-based load servers as well as virtual and cloud-based load servers.

load balancing

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