5 Reasons to Use a Software Load Balancer – DZone Performance #programming, #software #development, #devops,


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5 Reasons to Use a Software Load Balancer

5 Reasons to Use a Software Load Balancer

Evolve your approach to Application Performance Monitoring by adopting five best practices that are outlined and explored in this e-book. brought to you in partnership with BMC .

Today, computer and internet usage is at an all-time high, and reliable performance is both necessary and critical for businesses of all sizes. To increase the speed of system loading, decrease downtime, and eliminate single points of failure, load balancing is the answer.Load balancers help provide the seamless experience that users desire. Well-designed infrastructure includes a good load balancer plan so that any potential failures are detected, requests are rerouted to redundant points, and users never notice any failures.

Until very recently, load balancing was heavily dependent on hardware; but that has all changed. With load balancing software, these tasks are done smoothly and automatically. In fact, there are a number of reasons to choose load balancing software.

1. Less Expensive

Deploying software is much less expensive than buying hardware every time a change is made. Replacing hardware with load balancing software is DevOps-friendly and eliminates the siloing between DevOps and the rest of the departments within a business. It puts application management squarely in the hands of those best able to handle it. Additionally, maintenance can be done anytime, anywhere.

2. Scalable

Software load balancing is a natural choice for achieving high availability that is sustainable as the business and infrastructure grow. Also, having at least two backend servers maintains high availability, with software load balancers ensuring that traffic is directed to the server that is more readily available.

3. Easier Maintenance

This is one of the main reasons a software load balancer is a better choice than a hardware-based application delivery controller (ADC). In fact, performance is often a serious issue with legacy ADCs. Load balancing software can run anywhere, and any upgrades or maintenance can be done from a variety of devices – PCs, tablets, or even smartphones.

4. Flexible

Migrating old, hardware-based infrastructure to cloud-based environments allows agile development and the ability to upgrade and refine features easily. Software load balancers can be deployed anywhere. They work easily in both cloud and virtual environments and have open APIs so they can be integrated with all the tools you already use. Simply download and configure the software – no expensive hardware required.

5. Faster

Nobody likes features that are buggy or underperform. We expect things to work right the first time and every time after that. In our increasingly digital world, we want instant responses and fast load times. Software load balancers will run fast in any environment. There are no hardware configuration limitations and you can scale infrastructure to the size you need. Load balancing software gives you the power to manage delivery effectively for optimal performance.

Software load balancing use is growing rapidly, and it will continue to grow and be refined further as time goes by. We are already seeing huge organizations use load balancing software, with the Amazon load balancer, Elastic Load Balancing (ELB), one of the most popular examples.


How to check for last SQL Server backup #sql #server #database #backup #script


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How to check for last SQL Server backup

As a database professional, I get asked to review the health of database environments very often. When I perform these reviews, one of the many checks I perform is reviewing backup history and making sure that the backup plans in place meet the requirements and service level agreements for the business. I have found a number of backup strategies implemented using full, differential and transaction log backups in some fashion.

In more cases then I would like to share, I have found business critical databases that are not being backed up properly. This could be in the worst case having no backups or a backup strategy that does not meet the recoverability requirement of the business.

When doing an initial check I gather many details about the environment. Regarding backups, I capture things such as recovery model, last full backup, last differential, and the last two transaction log backups. Having this information will allow me to determine what the backup strategy is and point out any recover-ability gaps.

Some examples I have found are 1) no backup’s period, 2) full backup from months ago and daily differentials. In this case the full had been purged from the system, 3) Full backup of user database in Full recovery mode with no transaction log backups, 4) Proper use of weekly full, daily differential, and schedule transaction log backups – however the schedule was set to hourly and the customer expected they would have no more than 15 minutes of data loss. I am happy to report that I do find proper backup routines that meet the customers’ service level agreement too.

The code I like to use for this check is below.

Ensuring that you have backups is crucial to any check of a SQL Server instance. In addition to ensuring that backups are being created, validation of those backups is just as important. Backups are only valid if you can restore them.

When I have the opportunity to share my experiences of backup and recovery with people I always like to share about how to backup the tail end of a transaction log and how to attach a transaction log from one database to another in order to backup the tail end of the log. I have created a couple of videos on how to accomplish this that you can view using this like http://www.timradney.com/taillogrestore

20 Responses to How to check for last SQL Server backup

Tim, I always like to add a disclaimer that just because the history is there doesn t mean the file is I ve seen times when they got cleaned up too soon! Another edge case is having deadlocks that prevent the history record being added, making it look like the backup didn t happen. I like the premise of checking/confirming backups match what they expect.

Very good points.

Andrew Alger says:

Tim,
Great script, thanks for sharing!
To take this one step further, I created a scheduled script that checks and alerts me if my backups have not been run within a set time. Server updates and restarts always seem to take place during my backup windows.

Also, enough cannot be said for validating backups. My sys admin was running nightly backups that messed up my backup chain and I had no idea until I began validating these. No need to say what would have happened had I needed to perform an actual restore

Kevin M Parks says:

care to share you scheduled script?

Hi Andrew,
Can you please share the scheduled script that checks and alerts with me?

Thanks for sharing your thoughts and your script.

I am curiuos as to what questions you would ask to determine what the SLA should be (or more specifically what point people want to be able to recover to)

In my experience I quite often find full recovery models with full, differential and transaction log backups in place for systems that I feel simply do not need that level of backup.

For instance I found a system backup scheduled to be restored daily onto a seperate database on a reporting server. This then had full backups with log file backups running on the reporting server.

In other instances, quite often sytems are able to dynamically recreate the data in an instant, but simply use the database as a convenience. In such cases, I would set the recovery model to simple and have no backups run. I then use a powershell script to shutdown the (Vsphere) server at night and simply backup the entire server in a shutdown state. Since it is in a shutdown state, the data file is backed up without a problem and since the SLA is content with falling back one day (which many production systems I have are) this seems to be the quickest model of recovery without any fuss or hunting for a script and backup files.

Great question. For me I typically ask two very simple questions. 1) How much data can you afford to lose 2) How long can your system be down. The typical response is none and none and then start the explanations and negotiations. I have systems like you mentioned where a full from the previous night is sufficient. Your scenario of using a file backup such as shutting down the service and backing up all the files meets your SLA. For a Reporting server like you mentioned that is just a restored copy from production on a daily basis then why backup at all? For organizations I support, we document the SLA (RPO and RTO) of each database and work to meet that.

Many times working with different lines of business requires explaining to the business how backups work and what are industry standards and what is realistic. When they don t want to hear that a 15 minute RPO is best then present them with the price tag to lower the RPO. It really boils down to numbers and dollars in some cases.

Awesome query! I ve been looking for something like this for awhile. If you are interested, I modified it a bit for my use and turned it into to a sProc that uses Dynamic SQL to check all my Servers and Instances. I m making myself a dashboard with this. I d like to share it with you.

I still have one more piece I d like to add involving xp_fileexist to complete my dashboard project. I hope to have solved that soon.

Thanks again for taking the time to share this with all of us! Outstanding job!


Deprecated Database Engine Features in SQL Server 2012 #sql #server #database #monitoring


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Deprecated Database Engine Features in SQL Server 2012

This topic describes the deprecated SQL Server Database Engine features that are still available in SQL Server 2012. These features are scheduled to be removed in a future release of SQL Server. Deprecated features should not be used in new applications.

You can monitor the use of deprecated features by using the SQL Server Deprecated Features Object performance counter and trace events. For more information, see Use SQL Server Objects.

The following SQL Server Database Engine features will not be supported in the next version of SQL Server. Do not use these features in new development work, and modify applications that currently use these features as soon as possible. The Feature name value appears in trace events as the ObjectName and in performance counters and sys.dm_os_performance_counters as the instance name. The Feature ID value appears in trace events as the ObjectId.

Level0type = ‘type’ and Level0type = ‘USER’ to add extended properties to level-1 or level-2 type objects.

Use Level0type = ‘USER’ only to add an extended property directly to a user or role.

Use Level0type = ‘SCHEMA’ to add an extended property to level-1 types such as TABLE or VIEW, or level-2 types such as COLUMN or TRIGGER. For more information, see sp_addextendedproperty (Transact-SQL) .

Extended stored procedure programming

Use CLR Integration instead.

Extended stored procedure programming

Use CLR Integration instead.

Extended stored procedures

Use CREATE LOGIN

Use DROP LOGIN IsIntegratedSecurityOnly argument of SERVERPROPERTY

AlwaysOn Availability Groups

If your edition of SQL Server does not support AlwaysOn Availability Groups, use log shipping.

CREATE TABLE, ALTER TABLE, or CREATE INDEX syntax without parentheses around the options.

Rewrite the statement to use the current syntax.

sp_configure option ‘allow updates’

System tables are no longer updatable. Setting has no effect.

sp_configure ‘allow updates’

‘set working set size’

Now automatically configured. Setting has no effect.

sp_configure ‘open objects’

sp_configure ‘set working set size’

sp_configure option ‘priority boost’

System tables are no longer updatable. Setting has no effect. Use the Windows start /high … program.exe option instead.

sp_configure ‘priority boost’

sp_configure option ‘remote proc trans’

System tables are no longer updatable. Setting has no effect.

sp_configure ‘remote proc trans’

Specifying the SQLOLEDB provider for linked servers.

SQL Server Native Client (SQLNCLI)

SQLOLEDDB for linked servers

Native XML Web Services

The CREATE ENDPOINT or ALTER ENDPOINT statement with the FOR SOAP option.

Use Windows Communications Foundation (WCF) or ASP.NET instead.

The ALTER LOGIN WITH SET CREDENTIAL syntax

Replaced by the new ALTER LOGIN ADD and DROP CREDENTIAL syntax

ALTER LOGIN WITH SET CREDENTIAL

CREATE APPLICATION ROLE

DROP APPLICATION ROLE

ALTER APPLICATION ROLE

ALTER SCHEMA or ALTER AUTHORIZATION

ALTER LOGIN DISABLE

These stored procedures return information that was correct in SQL Server 2000. The output does not reflect changes to the permissions hierarchy implemented in SQL Server 2008. For more information, see Permissions of Fixed Server Roles .

GRANT, DENY, and REVOKE specific permissions.

PERMISSIONS intrinsic function

Query sys.fn_my_permissions instead.

RC4 and DESX encryption algorithms

Use another algorithm such as AES.

Server Configuration Options

c2 audit option

default trace enabled option

sp_configure ‘c2 audit mode’

sp_configure ‘default trace enabled’

SQL Server Agent

net send notification

Command or PowerShell scripts

SQL Server Management Studio

Solution Explorer integration in SQL Server Management Studio

Source Control integration in SQL Server Management Studio

System Stored Procedures

None. Support for increased partitions is available by default in SQL Server 2012

The compatibility views do not expose metadata for features that were introduced in SQL Server 2005. We recommend that you upgrade your applications to use catalog views. For more information, see Catalog Views (Transact-SQL) .

The use of the vardecimal storage format.

Vardecimal storage format is deprecated. SQL Server 2012 data compression, compresses decimal values as well as other data types. We recommend that you use data compression instead of the vardecimal storage format.

Vardecimal storage format

Use of the sp_db_vardecimal_storage_format procedure.

Vardecimal storage format is deprecated. SQL Server 2012 data compression, compresses decimal values as well as other data types. We recommend that you use data compression instead of the vardecimal storage format.

Use of the sp_estimated_rowsize_reduction_for_vardecimal procedure.

Use data compression and the sp_estimate_data_compression_savings procedure instead.

The cookie OUTPUT parameter for sp_setapprole is currently documented as varbinary(8000) which is the correct maximum length. However the current implementation returns varbinary(50). If developers have allocated varbinary(50) the application might require changes if the cookie return size increases in a future release. Though not a deprecation issue this is mentioned in this topic because the application adjustments are similar. For more information, see sp_setapprole (Transact-SQL) .

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Home – Research Databases (Mobile) – LibGuides at Duquesne University #academic #search #elite #database


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Research Databases (Mobile): Home

Academic Search Elite offers full text for more than 2,000 serials, including more than 1,500 peer-reviewed titles. This multi-disciplinary database covers virtually every area of academic study. More than 100 journals have PDF images back to 1985.

Index entries and abstracts for scholarly journal articles, dissertations, review articles, and monographs. Subjects covered include the history and culture of the United States and Canada from prehistoric times to the present.

Founded in 1932, Annual Reviews provides researchers, professors, and scientific professionals with a definitive academic resource in 37 scientific disciplines. Annual Reviews saves you time by synthesizing the vast amount of primary research literature and identifying the principal contributions in your field. Editorial committees comprised of the most distinguished scholars in the discipline select all topics for review, and the articles are written by authors who are recognized experts in the field. Annual Reviews publications are among the highest cited publications by impact factor according to the Institute for Scientific Information® (ISI).

ATLASerials® (ATLAS®) is an online full-text collection of major religion and theology journals used by libraries, librarians, religion scholars, theologians, and clergy.

Business Source Premier is the industry’s most used business research database, providing full text for more than 2,300 journals, including full text for more than 1,100 peer-reviewed titles. Business Source Premier is superior to the competition in full text coverage in all disciplines of business, including marketing, management, MIS, POM, accounting, finance and economics. This database is updated daily.

The Catholic Periodical and Literature Index Online is the product of a partnership between ATLA and the Catholic Library Association. The database covers all aspects of the Catholic faith and lifestyle, and includes over 380,000 index citations of articles and reviews published in Roman Catholic periodicals, Papal documents, church promulgations, and books about the Catholic faith that are authored by Catholics and/or produced by Catholic publishers. Indexing for CPLI Online corresponds to the print version, The Catholic Periodical and Literature Index, published by the Catholic Library Association and covers content from over 200 periodicals. Coverage in the database dates back to 1981.

CINAHL is the authoritative resource for nursing and allied health professionals, students, educators and researchers. This database provides indexing for 2,857 journals from the fields of nursing and allied health. The database contains more than 1,000,000 records dating back to 1982

Journals, books, and working papers on economics. Provides citations for dissertations and articles in more than 620 collective volumes per year.

ERIC, the Educational Resource Information Center, provides access to education literature and resources. The database provides access to information from journals included in the Current Index of Journals in Education and Resources in Education Index. ERIC provides full text of more than 2,200 digests along with references for additional information and citations and abstracts from over 1,000 educational and education-related journals.

Provides nearly 550 scholarly full text journals, including nearly 450 peer-reviewed journals focusing on many medical disciplines. Also featured are abstracts and indexing for nearly 850 journals.

Reader’s Guide Retrospective: 1890-1982 provides indexing of over 3 million articles from more than 550 leading magazines, including full coverage of the original print volumes of Readers’ Guide to Periodical Literature. This important resource offers a wide range of researchers access to information about history, culture and seminal developments across nearly a century.

The Medical Letter, Inc. is a nonprofit organization that publishes critical appraisals of new prescription drugs and comparative reviews of previously approved drugs.


What is Business Intelligence (BI)? Webopedia Definition #business #intelligence, #business #intelligence #software, #bi, #enterprise #application,


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BI – business intelligence

Related Terms

B usiness i ntelligence (BI) represents the tools and systems that play a key role in the strategic planning process within a corporation. These BI systems allow a company to gather, store, access and analyze corporate data to aid in decision-making.

Generally these systems will illustrate business intelligence in the areas of customer profiling, customer support, market research, market segmentation, product profitability, statistical analysis, and inventory and distribution analysis to name a few.

Keeping Track of Business Data

Most companies collect a large amount of data from their business operations. To keep track of that information, a business and would need to use a wide range of software programs, such as Excel, Access and different database applications for various departments throughout their organization. Using multiple software programs makes it difficult to retrieve information in a timely manner and to perform analysis of the data.

Business Intelligence Software

Business intelligence software is designed with the primary goal of extracting important data from an organization’s raw data to reveal insights to help a business make faster and more accurate decisions. The software typically integrates data from across the enterprise and provides end-users with self-service reporting and analysis. BI software uses a number of analytics features including statistics, data and text mining and predictive analytics to reveal patterns and turn information into insights.

Big Data and Business Intelligence

Big Data is used most extensively today with business intelligence and analytics applications and a number of BI vendors have moved to launch new tools that support Hadoop. For example, SAP offers connectors to Hadoop for SAP BI and Business Objects. According to EnterpriseAppsToday, BI vendor support for big data is typically in at least one of two ways:

– Integration connectors that make it easier to move data from Hadoop into their tools.
– Data visualization tools that make it easier to analyze data from Hadoop.

Webopedia Big Data Resources

Business Intelligence Vendors

The large BI vendors, including SAP, Oracle, IBM, Microsoft, Information Builders, MicroStrategy and SAS, have been around for years, but there is also a number of BI startups that see their products get absorbed as a feature in a larger player’s software. According to EnterpriseAppsToday. in addition to the large players, some mid-size BI vendors to consider include Actuate Corporation, Alteryx, Logi Analytics, QlikTech and Tableau.

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Monitoring Amazon RDS – Amazon Relational Database Service #amazon #relational #database #service,rds,db #instance,common #tasks,example


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Monitoring Amazon RDS

Monitoring is an important part of maintaining the reliability, availability, and performance of Amazon RDS and your AWS solutions. You should collect monitoring data from all of the parts of your AWS solution so that you can more easily debug a multi-point failure if one occurs. Before you start monitoring Amazon RDS, we recommend that you create a monitoring plan that includes answers to the following questions:

What are your monitoring goals?

What resources will you monitor?

How often will you monitor these resources?

What monitoring tools will you use?

Who will perform the monitoring tasks?

Who should be notified when something goes wrong?

The next step is to establish a baseline for normal Amazon RDS performance in your environment, by measuring performance at various times and under different load conditions. As you monitor Amazon RDS, you should consider storing historical monitoring data. This stored data will give you a baseline to compare against with current performance data, identify normal performance patterns and performance anomalies, and devise methods to address issues.

For example, with Amazon RDS, you can monitor network throughput, I/O for read, write, and/or metadata operations, client connections, and burst credit balances for your DB instances. When performance falls outside your established baseline, you might need change the instance class of your DB instance or the number of DB instances and Read Replicas that are available for clients in order to optimize your database availability for your workload.

In general, acceptable values for performance metrics depend on what your baseline looks like and what your application is doing. Investigate consistent or trending variances from your baseline. Advice about specific types of metrics follows:

High CPU or RAM consumption – High values for CPU or RAM consumption might be appropriate, provided that they are in keeping with your goals for your application (like throughput or concurrency) and are expected.

Disk space consumption – Investigate disk space consumption if space used is consistently at or above 85 percent of the total disk space. See if it is possible to delete data from the instance or archive data to a different system to free up space.

Network traffic – For network traffic, talk with your system administrator to understand what expected throughput is for your domain network and Internet connection. Investigate network traffic if throughput is consistently lower than expected.

Database connections – Consider constraining database connections if you see high numbers of user connections in conjunction with decreases in instance performance and response time. The best number of user connections for your DB instance will vary based on your instance class and the complexity of the operations being performed. You can determine the number of database connections by associating your DB instance with a parameter group where the User Connections parameter is set to a value other than 0 (unlimited). You can either use an existing parameter group or create a new one. For more information, see Working with DB Parameter Groups.

IOPS metrics – The expected values for IOPS metrics depend on disk specification and server configuration, so use your baseline to know what is typical. Investigate if values are consistently different than your baseline. For best IOPS performance, make sure your typical working set will fit into memory to minimize read and write operations.

Monitoring Tools

AWS provides various tools that you can use to monitor Amazon RDS. You can configure some of these tools to do the monitoring for you, while some of the tools require manual intervention. We recommend that you automate monitoring tasks as much as possible.

Automated Monitoring Tools

You can use the following automated monitoring tools to watch Amazon RDS and report when something is wrong:

Amazon CloudWatch Alarms – Watch a single metric over a time period that you specify, and perform one or more actions based on the value of the metric relative to a given threshold over a number of time periods. The action is a notification sent to an Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) topic or Auto Scaling policy. CloudWatch alarms do not invoke actions simply because they are in a particular state; the state must have changed and been maintained for a specified number of periods. For more information, see Monitoring with Amazon CloudWatch.

Amazon CloudWatch Logs – Monitor, store, and access your log files from AWS CloudTrail or other sources. For more information, see Monitoring Log Files in the Amazon CloudWatch User Guide.

Amazon RDS Enhanced Monitoring provides metrics in real time for the operating system that your DB instance or DB cluster runs on. For more information, see Enhanced Monitoring.

Amazon CloudWatch Events – Match events and route them to one or more target functions or streams to make changes, capture state information, and take corrective action. For more information, see Using Events in the Amazon CloudWatch User Guide.

AWS CloudTrail Log Monitoring – Share log files between accounts, monitor CloudTrail log files in real time by sending them to CloudWatch Logs, write log processing applications in Java, and validate that your log files have not changed after delivery by CloudTrail. For more information, see Working with CloudTrail Log Files in the AWS CloudTrail User Guide.

For information on using AWS CloudTrail Log Monitoring with Amazon RDS, see Logging Amazon RDS API Calls Using AWS CloudTrail.

Amazon RDS Events – Subscribe to Amazon RDS events to be notified when changes occur with a DB instance, DB cluster, DB snapshot, DB cluster snapshot, DB parameter group, or DB security group. For more information, see Using Amazon RDS Event Notification.

Database log files – View, download, or watch database log files using the Amazon RDS console or Amazon RDS APIs. You can also query some database log files that are loaded into database tables. For more information, see Amazon RDS Database Log Files.

Manual Monitoring Tools

Another important part of monitoring Amazon RDS involves manually monitoring those items that the CloudWatch alarms don’t cover. The Amazon RDS, CloudWatch, AWS Trusted Advisor and other AWS console dashboards provide an at-a-glance view of the state of your AWS environment. We recommend that you also check the log files on your DB instance.

From the Amazon RDS console, you can monitor the following items for your resources:

The number of connections to a DB instance

The amount of read and write operations to a DB instance

The amount of storage that a DB instance is currently utilizing

The amount of memory and CPU being utilized for a DB instance

The amount of network traffic to and from a DB instance

From the AWS Trusted Advisor dashboard, you can review the following cost optimization, security, fault tolerance, and performance improvement checks:

Amazon RDS Idle DB Instances

Amazon RDS Security Group Access Risk

Amazon RDS Backups

Amazon RDS Multi-AZ

[T2 instances] The number of CPU credits consumed by the instance. One CPU credit equals one vCPU running at 100% utilization for one minute or an equivalent combination of vCPUs, utilization, and time (for example, one vCPU running at 50% utilization for two minutes or two vCPUs running at 25% utilization for two minutes).

CPU credit metrics are available only at a 5 minute frequency. If you specify a period greater than five minutes, use the Sum statistic instead of the Average statistic.

[T2 instances] The number of CPU credits available for the instance to burst beyond its base CPU utilization. Credits are stored in the credit balance after they are earned and removed from the credit balance after they expire. Credits expire 24 hours after they are earned.

CPU credit metrics are available only at a 5 minute frequency.


The Medpages Database – Medpages service #healthcare #search, #healthcare #directory, #find #a #specialist, #request #an


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The Medpages Database

What’s inside?

The Medpages Database contains high-quality information that you can integrate into your systems. The database currently contains 398,048 actively-managed healthcare-provider records for Africa.

For each healthcare provider you get accurate and up-to-date information including name, speciality / service, landline, cell, email, postal address, physical address, geolocation, registration numbers, and much, much more.

See a person record See an organisation record

A quality database

The Medpages Database contains only quality, complete and up-to-date information. Here’s how we do it:

  1. A dedicated team of specialists are in daily telephonic contact with healthcare providers, updating and adding new information.
  2. We use data-quality profiling tools to continuously improve the data quality.
  3. We implement a rigorous quality assurance process.

In recognition of our data quality the Direct Marketing Association of South Africa (DMASA) awarded us a Gold Assegai Award. Our high standards have also been recognised by achieving Centre of Excellence membership at DMASA. The Medpages Database is PoPI (Protection of Public Information) compliant.

Poor data quality costs revenue in lost opportunities. Poor quality data is the top reason for CRM and business intelligence failure. Don’t waste time and money, use the recognised high-quality Medpages Database.

The dedicated team who are in daily contact with healthcare providers:

Easy integration into all your systems

The Medpages Database is software agnostic it will work with any software system. For example you can integrate it into your:

  • CRM software
  • Call reporting system
  • Territory management system
  • Claims administration system
  • Hospital management system
  • Accounting software
  • Billing system
  • Business intelligence software

Regular feeds of any updates or additions are sent to you at the desired frequency, keeping your installation up to date. Everyone in your organisation will be working off the same quality information: a unified view.

Just some of the systems we’ve integrated with:

Companies love the Medpages Database because it is:

High-quality data

Easy to integrate

A cost decreaser and a revenue increaser

A subscription to the Medpages Database also includes the ready-to-use Medpages Pro Search. which gives your whole company instant online access to the database.

These companies are benefitting by using Medpages

Hospital Groups

Medical Aid

Healthcare Suppliers

Media & Advertising

Pharmaceutical Companies

Banking

Pathology Laboratories

Recruitment

Research

Events

Software

Associates

For more information contact

Benjamin Dadon

National Sales Marketing Manager

Get the Who, What and Where of Healthcare for Africa

A person record (example)

This shows all the fields a person record can have. Field-values contain dummy-data for this example.

Restore your SQL Server database using transaction logs #how #to #restore #a #sql #database


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Restore your SQL Server database using transaction logs

Most DBAs dread hearing that they need to restore a database to a point in time, especially if the database is a production database. However, knowing how to do this is of the utmost importance for a DBA’s skill set. I’ll walk you through the steps of how to restore a SQL Server database to a point in time to recover a data table.

The scenario

A coworker calls you in a panic because he accidentally deleted some production data, and he wants you to restore the lost records.

If you are lucky, you have a data auditing system in place, and you can restore these records from an audit table. If you do not have a tool that will read a transaction log so that you can to undo transactions, you will likely need to restore the altered database to a certain point in time on the same or separate server than the server hosting the current database instance.

The restoration process

Note that, for the purpose of this article, I am assuming that your database recovery mode is set to FULL.

The first step in the process is to perform a tail-log backup. You want to perform this type of backup before a database restore to ensure that any records that have changed since the last backup are available to be included in the restore process.

Next you should locate where the database backup files are stored on the machine or the network. It may be a good idea to copy these files to your target server if you are going to be restoring the database on a different server. In the backup file location, find the very last full database backup that was completed (these files usually end with the extension .bak); you need to restore this full backup. The script below applies the full backup file to the NewDatabase database:

RESTORE DATABASE NewDatabase

FROM DISK = ‘D: \BackupFiles\TestDatabaseFullBackup.bak’

MOVE ‘PreviousDatabase’ TO ‘D:\DataFiles \TestDatabase.mdf’,

MOVE ‘PreviousDatabase_log’ TO ‘D:\DataFiles \TestDatabase_Log.ldf’,

The code specifies that the location of the full backup file is on your server’s D drive and that you are restoring the file to the database named NewDatabase. The statement moves the data file and the log file from the full backup to new files for my TestDatabase database. The last statement in the script, NORECOVERY, is very crucial. The NORECOVERY mode is one of three available options, which are outlined below.

  • NORECOVERY: Tells SQL Server that you are not finished restoring the database and that subsequent restore files will occur. While the database is in this state, the database is not yet available, so no connections are allowed.
  • RECOVERY: Tells SQL Server that you are finished restoring the database, and it is ready to be used. This is the default option, and it is by far the one that is used most often.
  • STANDBY: Tells SQL Server that the current database is not yet ready to be fully recovered and that subsequent log files can be applied to the restore. You can use this option so that connections are available to the restore database if necessary. However, future transaction logs can only be applied to the database if no current connections exist.

Once you restore the full backup using the NORECOVERY option, you can begin applying the transaction log backups or the differential backup.

A differential backup is a backup of any changes to the database that have occurred since the last full database backup. If you have multiple differential backups, you will only need to restore the very last one taken. In this situation, there are no differential backups, so you can move directly to the transaction log backups.

Transaction log backups A transaction log backup keeps track of all transactions that have occurred since the last transaction log backup; it also allows you to restore your database to a point in time before a database error occurred. Transaction log backups occur in sequence, creating a chain. When restoring a sequence of transaction log backups to a point in time, it is required that the transaction log files are restored in order.

When you use a database maintenance plan to create the transaction log backups, a time indicator is typically included in the transaction log file name. The script below applies three transaction log backups using the NORECOVERY option, and the last statement restores the database to availability to the time frame at the very end of the last transaction log file.

RESTORE LOG NewDatabase

FROM DISK = ”D: \BackupFiles\TestDatabase_TransactionLogBackup1.trn’

RESTORE LOG NewDatabase

FROM DISK = ”D: \BackupFiles\ TestDatabase_TransactionLogBackup2.trn’

RESTORE LOG NewDatabase

FROM DISK = ”D: \BackupFiles\ TestDatabase_TransactionLogBackup3.trn’

RESTORE LOG NewDatabase

FROM DISK = ”D: \BackupFiles\ TestDatabase_TransactionLogBackup4.trn’

Restoring to a point in time In the example above, you restore the database to the end of the last transaction log. If you want to recover your database to a specific point in time before the end of the transaction log, you must use the STOPAT option. The script below restores the fourth transaction log in the log sequence to 4:01 PM — just before the database mishap occurred.

RESTORE LOG NewDatabase

FROM DISK = ”D: \BackupFiles\ TestDatabase_TransactionLogBackup4.trn’

WITH STOPAT = N’6/28/2007 4:01:45 PM’, RECOVERY

Now that you have the database restore to a point where you need it to be, it is time to decide how to help the developers in order to make their situation a little bit easier. My suggestion is to copy the table the developers need to a separate table on the server so that you or they can correct the data problem.

Be prepared

Restoring your database to a point in time is one of those things that you never want to have to use, but you need to be able to complete it if necessary. I took an overview approach as to how to restore your SQL Server database using transaction logs for a certain circumstance. It’s important to note that companies use different approaches for backing up data, so it is very important to be thoroughly involved in your company’s database backup process. Be sure to test restores and restore situations often so that you are ready when a disaster does occur.

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About Tim Chapman

Tim Chapman is a SQL Server MVP, a database architect, and an administrator who works as an independent consultant in Raleigh, NC, and has more than nine years of IT experience.

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Tim Chapman is a SQL Server MVP, a database architect, and an administrator who works as an independent consultant in Raleigh, NC, and has more than nine years of IT experience.


What is human capital management (HCM)? Definition from #human #resource #database #software


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human capital management (HCM)

Human capital management (HCM) is an approach to employee staffing that perceives people as assets (human capital) whose current value can be measured and whose future value can be enhanced through investment.

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An organization that supports HCM provides employees with clearly defined and consistently communicated performance expectations. Managers are responsible for rating, rewarding and holding employees accountable for achieving specific business goals, creating innovation and supporting continuous improvement .

In the back office, HCM is either a component of an enterprise resource planning (ERP ) system or a separate suite that is typically integrated with the ERP. In recent years, the term HCM system has begun to displace human resource management system (HRMS) and HR system as an umbrella term for integrated software for both employee records and talent management processes. The records component provides managers with the information they need to make decisions that are based on data. Talent management can include dedicated modules for recruitment. performance management. learning, and compensation management. and other applications related to attracting, developing and retaining employees.

Like HRMS, HCM software streamlines and automates many of the day-to-day record-keeping processes and provides a framework for HR staff to manage benefits administration and payroll, map out succession planning and document such things as personnel actions and compliance with industry and/or government regulations. While now nearly synonymous with HRMS, HCM systems usually go beyond these basic HR functions by adding integrated talent-management features.

This was last updated in April 2015

Next Steps

Read expert Mary E. Shacklett’s in-depth explanation of the three categories of HCM tools and how they can benefit your organization. Then read her HR software purchasing considerations advice to help determine what your organization requires from an HR tool and learn how to choose the best HR software tool to suit your organization’s needs.

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Related Terms

nine-box grid The nine-box grid is a human resource management (HRM) tool used by supervisors to rate the performance and potential of. See complete definition Workboard Workboard is an application for improving a company’s strategic planning, boosting teamwork and collaboration, and tracking the. See complete definition xAPI (experience API) The xAPI (experience API), also known as Tin Can API, is an open source software specification that provides a set of rules for. See complete definition

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