Child Abuse Overview #crimes #against #children, #criminal #law, #criminal #charges


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Child Abuse Overview

Child Abuse: Definition

Child abuse is broadly defined in many states as any type of cruelty inflicted upon a child, including mental abuse, physical harm, neglect, and sexual abuse or exploitation. The specific crimes charged in instances of child abuse can include assault and battery. In many states, certain individuals and caregivers are required by law to report suspected child abuse. Nevertheless, unfortunately, many cases of child abuse go unreported.

A child who has been abused or neglected may experience a range of problems, such as relationship difficulties, lack of trust of adults, emotional outbursts (or retreat), low performance at school, depression, anxiety, and anger.

The Elements of a Child Abuse Charge

As noted above, child abuse is a crime that encompasses a variety of behaviors involving physical, emotional, or sexual mistreatment or neglect upon a child. State child abuse laws define child abuse as any act (or failure to act) that:

  1. Results in imminent risk or serious harm to a child’s health and welfare due to physical, emotional, or sexual abuse;
  2. affects a child (typically under the age of 18);
  3. by a parent or caregiver who is responsible for the child’s welfare.

In most states, the harm must have been inflicted by non-accidental means. This includes intentional acts, actions that were careless (such as, allowing a known sexual offender or known abuser to be with a child alone), and acts of negligence (such as, leaving a child under a certain age at home alone). Also, the harm inflicted upon a child need not be actual, but may include threats or risks of imminent harm .

In addition to state child abuse laws, all states have child protective services (CPS) agencies that investigate reports of abuse and neglect of children in a home. CPS also serves to place children who have been abused or neglected in safer homes, either through adoption or foster care.

Typical defenses include accident, wrongful accusations, and a parent’s right to discipline.

Mandatory Reporting Laws

Every state has mandatory reporting laws that require certain people to report apparent or suspected child abuse to a central authority, such as via a statewide toll-free hotline. The reports — which are often anonymous — are meant to promote early intervention of child abuse.

Many states require any person to report suspected child abuse, whereas other states require mandatory reporting by certain professional, such as doctors, nurses, social workers, school officials, day care workers, and law enforcement personnel. In some states, failing to report instances of child abuse is considered a misdemeanor punishable by fines, jail time, or both.

Examples of warning signs of abuse of a child may include:

  • Physical abuse – unexplained burns, bites, bruises, and broken bones or parent’s philosophy of harsh physical discipline
  • Emotional abuse – extreme behavior, delayed physical or emotional development, attempted suicide, and belittling by a parent or caregiver
  • Sexual abuse – difficulty walking or sitting, reports of nightmares or bedwetting, sudden changes in appetite, sudden refusal to change in front of others or participate in gym activities
  • Neglect – frequent absences from school, obvious lack of medical or dental care, severe body odor, stays home alone

Free Case Evaluation by a Local Criminal Defense Attorney

If you’re being investigated by Child Protective Services, by the police department or by your county’s District Attorney, you will most certainly want to speak to a criminal defense lawyer to determine your best course of action. For your peace of mind, you should know that even in an initial attorney consultation, confidentiality is guaranteed. If you are struggling with child abuse or other criminal allegations, it’s in your best interest to immediately contact a criminal defense attorney for a free case evaluation .


Criminal Defense Attorneys for Southwest Michigan #hills #law, #law #offices #in #kalamazoo, #criminal #defense, #defense


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Kalamazoo Criminal Defense Attorneys

Application For Original Driving License/Privileges Denied By The State of Michigan

Facts: The prospective clients has had his application for an original license in Michigan denied-rejected. He was told that the State of Michigan will not issue driving privileges to him until at least 03/11/2018. He DID NOT.

The criminal defense attorneys of Hills at Law, P.C. have been protecting southwest Michigan citizens’ rights for over four decades from our office in Kalamazoo. Our experience covers the spectrum from misdemeanors such as drunk driving, domestic violence, and possession of marijuana to felonies including criminal sexual conduct, murder, delivery of drugs, and every crime in between.

We aggressively defend individuals and organizations in a wide variety of criminal matters at every stage of the process: from before charges are issued, through the trial process, and, when necessary, through the appellate process. Our attorneys protect and defend clients in State and Federal courts in Kalamazoo and throughout southwest Michigan.

Our criminal defense specialties include:

Our Kalamazoo law firm is committed to providing clients with personalized representation and we work together with our staff and investigators to provide superior representation. Our depth of experience in handling even the most complicated matters qualifies us to handle your defense, no matter what type of criminal charges are involved .

Jim and Mike pose for a photo after completing some renovations on their historic building in downtown Kalamazoo, Michigan.

James Hills given Fox Award for Trial Advocacy. Pictured above: Michael Hills, Michigan Supreme Court Justice Richard Bernstein, James Hills

Under Investigation?

If you think that you are under criminal investigation and police are questioning you, do not wait to be charged before hiring an attorney. By obtaining representation during the investigation process, our experienced criminal defense lawyers can often prevent charges from being filed in the first place.

By retaining the services of one of our criminal defense attorneys before you are charged or arrested, you’ll have the advantage of a lawyer with expertise in the area pertaining to your defense and who is thoroughly familiar with Michigan’s criminal code.

  • Criminal Defense Attorney’s of Michigan Fall Conference, Traverse City Michigan, November 2016
  • Coming Together Conference, Kalamazoo October 2016
  • Michigan Association of Treatment Court Professionals March 2016; Grand Rapids Michigan – Michael D. Hills, Jessica E. LaFond
  • Trial College; Criminal Defense Attorneys of Michigan, Lansing Michigan – August 2015
  • Federal Training; criminal history scoring/career offender and new issues relative to predicate convictions. Grand Rapids, Michigan, July 2015
  • 2015 Michigan Association of Treatment Court Professionals Conference – Michael Hills presenter
  • Criminal Defense Attorney’s of Michigan’s Fall Conference, Traverse City Michigan, November 2014
  • “Zealous Advocacy in Sexual Assault Child Victims Cases” National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyer’s Defending Sex Crimes Conference, Las Vegas Nevada November 2014
  • “Forensic Toxicology for Attorneys 2014: Alcohol, Drugs How to Use and Expert” Presented by Dr. John Vasiliades, DABFT, DABCC, Lab Director, Tox Labs in Omaha, NE August 2014
  • “Incentive and Sanctions Training; National Association of Drug Court Professionals” Presented by Helen Harberts, M.S. J.D.; Terrance Walton, NDCI Faculty April 2014
  • “Criminal History in Sentencing – Descamps, Its Changes, and Where the Supreme Court May Go Next” Presented by Paresh Patel, Appellate Attorney, Federal Public Defender’s Office, District of Maryland, Greenbelt, MD April 2014
  • Michigan Association of Drug Court Professionals, Michigan Conference March 2014
  • Presentation: “Forensic Psychiatry, Criminal Competencies and Malingering,” William J. Sanders, D.O. M.S March 2014

Southwest Michigan Counties Our Attorneys Serve

The criminal defense attorneys of Hills at Law, P.C. represent clients in State and Federal courts throughout eight southwest Michigan counties, including:

The sooner you seek legal assistance, the better your lawyer can protect you. Don’t wait to be arrested, and don’t wait to be charged—let us help you now.

Contact Hills at Law, P.C. today for the most experienced and aggressive criminal defense attorneys in Kalamazoo.

Criminal Defense Attorneys for Kalamazoo County Southwest Michigan
© 2015 Hills Law Offices

425 S Westnedge Ave Kalamazoo. MI 49007

Toll Free: 866-315-9147 – Phone: 269-373-5431 – Fax: 269-344-5701


NEW YORK CRIMINAL ATTORNEY #manhattan #new #york #city #criminal #defense #lawyer, #new #york, #queens, #brooklyn


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New York City Criminal Defense Lawyer

Jon Marks New York City Criminal Defense Lawyer

The Law Firm of Jonathan Marks, P.C.

The Law Firm of Criminal Defense Lawyer Jonathan Marks has been successfully defending clients facing criminal charges since 1978. Over the past 40 years, the Firm has earned an outstanding reputation for obtaining favorable results for its clients through all stages of the criminal justice process

The Firm’s criminal cases range from complex white collar prosecutions to narcotics and violent crimes. In addition, the Firm handles cases involving police brutality and other instances of police misconduct. With 40 years of experience and dedication to the specialized field of criminal law, the Law Firm of Jonathan Marks can be trusted to maintain total confidentiality and to energetically pursue your legal rights and goals.

Professional New York Legal Counsel for criminal defense

The Firm believes that all of its clients deserve personalized expert legal services that are cost-effective and that efficiently resolve any pending criminal charges. The Firm treats each client as a partner in his or her case and emphasizes that the best defense results from a well-informed client and well-informed attorney. At the same time, the Firm remains keenly aware that its criminal clients are facing an inordinate amount of personal stress and that part of an attorney’s job is to do all things possible to minimize that stress.

Hire one of the best criminal attorneys in New York

Attorney Marks has received the highest rating (AV) for competence and integrity from Martindale-Hubbell for the past 40 years. He has taught trial advocacy to lawyers and at law schools in the New York area. Jonathan Marks is proud of the recognition and appreciation he has received from his clients for his devotion to their cases and the good outcomes that have resulted. One client even named his first son after Attorney Marks .

Jonathan Marks has been a life member of the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers and a member of the New York Council of Defense Lawyers, the New York Criminal Bar Association, and the Federal Bar Council.

If you are facing criminal charges in New York City, Manhattan, Brooklyn or Queens and are looking for highly experienced and personalized legal assistance, please contact the New York City Law Firm of Jonathan Marks. P.C. We speak Mandarin Chinese, Korean and Japanese.


OAKLAND CRIMINAL LAWYER #oakland #criminal #lawyer, #drug #crimes, #robbery, #oakland #criminal #attorney, #dui, #sex #crimes,


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  • Computer Crime
  • Criminal Defense
  • Domestic Violence
  • Drug Crime
  • DUI
  • Embezzlement
  • Felony
  • Fraud
  • Homicide
  • Juvenile Crime
  • Misdemeanors
  • Murder
  • Parole Violations
  • Probation Violations
  • Robbery
  • Sex Crime
  • Theft
  • Traffic Violations
  • Violent Crime
  • Weapon Charges
  • White Collar Crime

Oakland Criminal Lawyer

When you are arrested for a crime, your choice of a criminal lawyer is the difference between going to jail and walking out of a courtroom with your freedom and civil liberties in tact. If you or your loved one has been arrested and charged for a crime, contact the law offices of the Oakland Criminal Lawyer immediately.

Our legal team can defend any case such as:

  • Drug Crimes
  • DUI
  • Violent Crimes
  • Sexual Assault
  • Other Sex Crimes
  • White Collar Crime
  • Theft Robbery
  • And much more.

Being charged for a crime in California means that you will be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law. A criminal conviction in the California justice system could result in jail time, probation, hefty fines, as well as other consequences such as the loss of driving privileges and the right to own a firearm. By appointing an experienced Oakland criminal attorney you give yourself a greater chance of decreasing your punishment…if a conviction can even be reached.

The Oakland Criminal Lawyer will thoroughly examine your case. No matter the severity of your charges or how complicated your case may appear to be, the Oakland Criminal Lawyer has the skills necessary to get the best outcome possible for you and your family.

If you are concerned about your ability to pay for legal representation, our office provides affordable payment options for every client.

Contact the law offices of the Oakland Criminal Lawyer today for a consultation about the next steps in your criminal case.

Copyright 2011 Oakland’s Criminal Lawyer | Website Developed and Optimized by Webopts


Melbourne Criminal Defense Attorney #melbourne #criminal #defense #attorney, #brevard #county, #florida, #melbourne #criminal #attorney, #melbourne


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We Fight for Your Freedom Whether you face felony or misdemeanor charges, we will fight hard to help you clear your name. Learn more

  • Previous Cases and Outcomes View outcomes we achieved for cases like yours. Discover how we can fight for you. Learn more

  • Open and Direct Communication Take the first steps towards clearing your charges. Discuss your case during a free consultation. Learn more

    Free Case Evaluation

    Melbourne Criminal Defense Attorney

    The criminal defense attorneys at the Law Offices of Germain & McCarthy, LLC, provide a full-service approach to fighting felony, misdemeanor and DUI charges throughout Brevard County and the surrounding areas. Our offices are conveniently located in Melbourne, Florida.

    If you are facing criminal charges or a criminal investigation then call our office for a free consultation to find out what you need to do now to protect yourself. Fighting for the best result often requires hiring an attorney as early in the process as possible before memories fade and favorable evidence is lost. The decisions you make in the days and weeks following your arrest may dictate the avenues of attack available to the criminal defense attorney that you retain to represent you.

    Law Offices of Germain & McCarthy, LLC

    By visiting this website you are taking an important first step in learning more general information about your particular criminal charge and possible defenses. No substitute exists, however, for speaking directly with a criminal defense attorney in Melbourne, Brevard County, FL, in order to protect your rights and obtain legal advice. We understand that your case cannot wait.

    Avoiding the Direct and the Indirect Consequences of a Criminal Accusation

    Many of the clients that we represent for criminal charges in Brevard County have no prior criminal record. Certain professions require special state or federal certification such as doctors, lawyers, nurses, private and public school teachers, state and federal law enforcement officers and members of the military. Individuals in these professions face special challenges after an arrest and prosecution.

    Even if the charges are ultimately dropped, those indirect consequences can have a huge impact on the individual’s career and future employment opportunities. Similar problems impact individuals working as defense contractors or who are required to carry a firearm or use a concealed weapons permit for their employment.

    Even high school and college students can face serious immediate consequences to their education after an arrest or criminal accusation. Our criminal defense attorneys work with these individuals to minimize both the direct and indirect consequences of an arrest and prosecution. We work with clients throughout Palm Bay, Rockledge, Titusville, Cocoa, West Melbourne, Indian Harbour Beach, and nearby areas.

    Our Attorneys Fight for the Best Result in Your Criminal Case

    The Florida criminal defense attorneys at Law Offices of Germain & McCarthy, LLC zealously fight for their clients. We take an aggressive approach coupled with a meticulous attention to detail. We believe that by filing and litigating all viable motions we can often negotiate a better resolution to the case or force the prosecutor to drop the charges. Florida law provides for important protections by filing motions to exclude evidence, motions to suppress statements, and motions to dismiss criminal charges.

    Our experience in the courtroom and with the particular judges and prosecutors in Brevard County and the surrounding counties helps us protect our clients throughout every step of the process. Call us today to discuss the particular facts of your case and your best defense.

    Never Speak to a Law Enforcement Officer

    Never make a statement to law enforcement until after you have spoken with an attorney about the facts of your case. The Fifth Amendment of the United States Constitution provides you with an invaluable tool in avoiding an unjust prosecution. You have the right to remain silent and not make any statement once you learn that you are under investigation for a criminal offense.

    You should always exercise that right until after you have spoken to a criminal defense attorney. In order to exercise your right to remain silent you simply tell the law enforcement officer that you want to remain silent until your attorney is present. Then remain silent. If the officer continues to interrogate you, you know that the officer may be violating your Miranda rights. Do not talk to law enforcement until after you have retained a criminal defense attorney.

    By remaining silent you are exercising an important constitutional right provided to all citizens for the past 200 years. Even if you believe your side of the story shows that you are innocent, you may be admitting to certain parts of the case that increase the chances that you will be arrested and prosecuted. Additionally, if you make a statement then the officer then becomes a witness against you who may remember part or all of your statement incorrectly.

    Your side of the story can best be told through your criminal defense lawyer who can also provide law enforcement with favorable or exculpatory evidence that may help you avoid an arrest. We provide free consultations in the office or over the phone to discuss the pending charges after an arrest, or any criminal investigation.

    Pre-File Investigations After a Felony Arrest

    If you have already been arrested for any felony case, keep in mind that the State Attorney’s Office in Brevard County typically takes 21 days to make a filing decision after an arrest. Your criminal defense attorney in Melbourne has a short window in which to convince the prosecutor not to file any felony charge. Working with your criminal defense attorney in those days immediately after an arrest can often make a huge difference in the way your case is ultimately resolved.

    Our Training and Experience in Fighting Criminal Charges in Brevard County, FL

    Our criminal defense attorneys in Brevard County, FL, have experience from both sides of the criminal justice system. As a former Assistant Public Defender in Brevard County and a former Assistant State Attorney prosecuting felony and misdemeanor crimes, that wide range of experience and training allows us to provide aggressive representation.

    Drunk Driving and DUI Defense in Brevard County, FL

    Our criminal defense attorneys focus on DUI defense in Brevard County. Find our more about DUI cases involving a refusal to submit to a chemical test of your breath, blood or urine. Although the prosecutor will argue that the refusal occurred because of “consciousness of guilty,” we aggressively fight these cases to force the prosecutor to either drop or reduce the charges to reckless driving.

    A Brevard County DUI lawyer from our firm can help you aggressively fight to avoid any immediate suspension of your driver’s licenses at the Bureau of Administrative Reviews with the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles (DMV) after a DUI arrest. Act quickly, because your Brevard County DUI Lawyer must request a formal review hearing within 10 days of your arrest in order to protect your driver’s license.

    Our drunk driving attorneys aggressively fight DUI cases involving a high blow on the breath test machines used in Brevard County, called the Intoxilyzer 8000. Many people incorrectly assume that if they blew over the legal limit, there is no way to avoid a DUI conviction. Our attorneys know that by aggressively fighting the drunk driving charge, many of these high blow cases are resolved without any DUI conviction which ultimately saves the client thousands of dollars. Contact our offices to find our more about how we can show mistakes made with the routine annual and monthly inspections of the particular breathalyzer machine used in your case.

    Finding Experienced Criminal Defense Representation

    Call the criminal defense attorneys in Brevard County, FL. with the Law Offices of Germain & McCarthy, LLC to discuss your misdemeanor, DUI or felony criminal investigation in Melbourne, Satellite Beach, Merritt Island, Titusville, Viera, Cape Canaveral, Cocoa, Cocoa Beach, Indialantic, Indian Harbour Beach, Melbourne Beach, West Melbourne, Palm Bay, Rockledge, and the surrounding counties of Volusia County, Seminole County, Orange County, Osceola County, and Indian River County, FL.

    The personal injury attorneys at the Law Offices of Germain and McCarthy, LLC, provide a full service approach to fighting the irresponsible, reckless, or hurtful actions of others. If you want justice, we are the right law firm for you. If you want to be compensated for what the person did to you or a loved one, we are the Space Coast personal injury law firm for you and your family.

    The Law Offices of Germain and McCarthy, LLC

    Our Melbourne personal injury attorneys comprehend how you feel. At Germain and McCarthy, we are experienced attorneys. We are knowledgeable, hard workers, and fighters for justice. Visit this website now

    Free Case Evaluation


  • Pasadena Federal Criminal Defense Lawyer #pasadena #criminal #defense #attorney, #pasadena #federal #criminal #defense #lawyer, #pasadena,


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    Los Angeles Federal Criminal Defense Attorney

    Federal prosecutions can, and often are, some of the most serious cases facing a defendant. The penalties for violation of federal law are always heavy.

    When you or a loved one is arrested and prosecuted in federal court, protection of your legal rights can only come from an effective and experienced lawyer. In a federal criminal case, a lawyer who has successfully challenged federal law enforcement and prosecutors can mean the difference between freedom (or shorter sentences) and long, harsh sentences. Federal law enforcement and prosecutors are always aggressive. They will try to obtain statements from the arrested person long before you had a chance to talk to a lawyer. These tactics must be met with an intelligent and equally aggressive defense.

    Established in 1976, our law firm has provided high quality, aggressive legal advocacy with outstanding results. In our criminal defense practice we have litigated against the United States government, and state and local agencies, in cases ranging from fraud to homicide to large drug conspiracies to extradition to foreign countries. Despite the large resources of the United States government, we have consistently provided skilled lawyering and leveled the playing field for our clients. The favorable results that we have obtained are the product of a simple philosophy: We truly care about our clients and defend their legal rights aggressively.

    Since that time, we have handled hundreds of trials, appeals and writs in criminal law, including federal and state cases involving major felonies such as mail/wire fraud and other white collar crimes, drug crimes, conspiracy, homicide, computer crimes, sex crimes, theft and related crimes and post conviction relief in state and federal courts. Our firm has represented clients in federal cases across the United States.

    We have also represented clients in federal court in extradition proceedings, that is, persons who are sought in foreign countries for criminal prosecution.

    In 2006, Michael Severo was selected as a criminal defense Super Lawyer.
    Can you trust your defense (actually your life!) to a lawyer with less experience?
    We offer you more. We give you a full defense team. In addition to experience, our firm hires veteran investigators and experts who can readily and effectively assist clients at any time.

    If you or a member of your family is charged with a federal crime, choosing the right lawyer may be the most important decision you will ever make.

    Call us toll free at 1-888-892-0018. We will accept emergency calls 24 hours a day. We will evaluate your situation, give you a no-nonsense legal opinion and set a fee that will be fair and reasonable.

    We accept credit cards