How to Provide Makeup Air for Range Hoods #makeup #air,range #hood


How to Provide Makeup Air for Range Hoods

How to Provide Makeup Air for Range Hoods

Jun 8, 2015 2:07 PM ET

Location of make-up air
by Malcolm Taylor

If you are going to supply un-tempered make-up air, I wonder what difference there is in where it is located? A motorized damper and grill in the backsplash of the range might mitigate comfort and heat-loss concerns. Does anyone know if there has been any studies showing whether the proportion of air exhausted that comes from the vent, not the room, varies significantly based on it’s location?

Jun 8, 2015 2:54 PM ET

Edited Jun 8, 2015 3:45 PM ET.

Response to Malcolm Taylor
by Martin Holladay

Ideally, the range hood exhaust fan will pull away the smoke and odors emanating from the stove. The problem with your backsplash idea, which has been tried, is short-circuiting: the exhaust fan often ends up pulling most of its air from the makeup air grille, allow the smoke from the roasting meat to drift into the kitchen.

Jun 8, 2015 3:39 PM ET

I still can’t but think that a directed supply air could somehow be more efficient. Years ago I worked on a couple of high-tech manufacturing facility designs. Their air supply and exhaust was situated to take the contaminants produced directly out of the rooms without affecting the products being produced. The same is true of hospital operating rooms with their vertical air flows.
Someone with more ingenuity than me might come up with a solution.

Jun 8, 2015 4:27 PM ET

Makeup air design
by Carl Seville

Martin – Although this is about commercial equipment, has some really good info, including some downloadable PDFs on this link on how to design effective makeup air systems. It addresses the short circuiting you mention as well. It would be nice to see this level of research on residential systems.

Jun 8, 2015 4:41 PM ET

Providing Makeup Air (CEC and BSC Resources)
by Kohta Ueno

As a general warning on providing makeup air–in general, you want to let the warm plume of air rising off the cooking surface rise **into the hood** to be exhausted. Introducing lots of makeup air too close to this “plume” will disrupt it, and often result in worse capture efficiency. Even concepts that seem to make sense–like a “curtain” of air at the front of the hood–can result in disrupted airflow and worse capture efficiency. The less you disrupt the plume, the better it works.

There’s a great report from the California Energy Commission using schlieren (flow visualization) images to show what’s going on. It looks like it’s the same (or similar) material that’s in ASHRAE HVAC Applications.

Also, for those who want the entertaining version of kitchen exhaust a la Joe:

Jun 8, 2015 4:44 PM ET

Why can’t range-hood exhaust ducts be designed to recover heat?
by Kohta Ueno

Just for folks’ reference–in **commercial** kitchens, range hood heat recovery does exist–per the Environmental Building News cover story from February 2010. But I’ve never heard of it for residential. The story emphasizes just how hard of a problem it is to deal with cooking grease, per Martin’s column.

Capturing the heat from CKV seems like common sense, and the technology has been around for years, but major manufacturers no longer sell systems, mainly because of one big problem: grease.

Grease in cooking effluent accumulates on hoods, ducts, fans, and even building roofs, and it poses a serious fire hazard. Heat exchangers provide an ideal spot for this grease to accumulate. The typical method for removing the grease from these systems is through an automatic washdown system, but these can be expensive to buy and maintain, and they consume a lot of water. Despite these challenges, heat-exchange technology is poised for a comeback. Innovent ( ) is selling a flat-plate heat exchanger for CKV that includes automatic washdown. The company does not recommend the unit for use with broilers or other heavy-duty equipment, but it could be cost-effective in an institutional setting or school cafeteria.

Jun 8, 2015 5:47 PM ET

Response to Kohta Ueno
by Martin Holladay

Thanks for the useful links. And thanks for backing up my analyses of the problems associated with exhaust fan short-circuiting and gummed-up heat-exchange systems.

Jun 9, 2015 9:52 AM ET

“Dynamic Relationships” = depressurization
by Brian Just

Martin, your “dynamic relationships” seem to be a euphemism for, or maybe a distraction from, the depressurization that accompanies large exhaust and inadequate make up air. The code requires make up air for large exhaust to minimize depressurization. Designing for reduced exhaust due to small make up air openings seems to embrace depressurization as a solution to its own problem.
I like Broan’s approach: give us really big (passive) openings. Once a designer contemplates the opening required to match the range exhaust, perhaps they’ll consider reducing the size of the range fan.

Jun 9, 2015 10:23 AM ET

Response to Brian Just
by Martin Holladay

My use of the phrase “dynamic relationship” was neither a euphemism nor a distraction. I am well aware of the problem of depressurization. Although the magazine editors at Taunton chose to omit most references to depressurization in this article, referring instead to backdrafting problems, there is no doubt that the entire focus of the article is on the problem of depressurization.

For a more extensive discussion of these issues, you can read the online article on which this magazine article was based: Makeup Air for Range Hoods. In that article, I wrote, “Since most residential kitchens are adequately served by a 150-cfm or 250-cfm range hood, it comes as no surprise that a 1,200-cfm range hood can cause depressurization and backdrafting problems.”

I certainly don’t recommend that readers design insufficient makeup air systems to “embrace depressurization,” as you put it.

The dynamic relationship I discussed is a fact. It is based on physics; it is not a description of desirable outcome. As an exhaust fan ramps up, infiltration through cracks in the envelope increases. The change in the infiltration rate happens as a direct result of the depressurization caused by the exhaust fan — not because a designer wants it to happen.

Jun 9, 2015 1:27 PM ET

Edited Jun 9, 2015 1:38 PM ET.

Gas cook tops vs. induction
by Peter Whitman

It seems like one of the contributing factors in the make-up air issue is the choice of cook top. The commercial gas ranges that are all the rage produce huge amounts of heat and off-gas, and also have high ventilation requirements.
In the highly insulated home we are building, our HRV contractor recommends an induction cook top with small hood. When we need to turn on the ventilation system, we switch the boost on the HRV.
Any comments?
As usual, thank you in advance.

Jun 9, 2015 2:00 PM ET

Edited Jun 9, 2015 2:12 PM ET.

Response to Peter Whitman
by Martin Holladay

Like you, I prefer range hood fans to be small. As I wrote in the article, a range hood fan rated at 160 cfm to 200 cfm is a good way to go.

Jun 10, 2015 8:19 PM ET

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Causes of Lung Cancer

What causes lung cancer?

The incidence of lung cancer is strongly correlated with cigarette smoking. with about 90% of lung cancers arising as a result of tobacco use. The risk of lung cancer increases with the number of cigarettes smoked over time; doctors refer to this risk in terms of pack-years of smoking history (the number of packs of cigarettes smoked per day multiplied by the number of years smoked). For example, a person who has smoked two packs of cigarettes per day for 10 years has a 20 pack-year smoking history. While the risk of lung cancer is increased with even a 10 pack-year smoking history, those with 30 pack-year histories or more are considered to have the greatest risk for the development of lung cancer. Among those who smoke two or more packs of cigarettes per day, one in seven will die of lung cancer. But even though the risk is higher the more you smoke, there is no safe level of exposure to tobacco smoke.

Pipe and cigar smoking can also cause lung cancer. although the risk is not as high as with cigarettes. While someone who smokes one pack of cigarettes per day has a risk for the development of lung cancer that is 25 times higher than a nonsmoker, pipe and cigar smokers have a risk of lung cancer that is about five times that of a nonsmoker.

Tobacco smoke contains over 4,000 chemical compounds, many of which have been shown to be cancer -causing, or carcinogenic. The two primary carcinogens in tobacco smoke are chemicals known as nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The risk of developing lung cancer decreases each year following smoking cessation as normal cells grow and replace damaged cells in the lung. In former smokers, the risk of developing lung cancer begins to approach that of a nonsmoker about 15 years after cessation of smoking.

Passive smoking, or the inhalation of tobacco smoke from other smokers sharing living or working quarters, is also an established risk factor for the development of lung cancer. Research has shown that nonsmokers who reside with a smoker have a 24% increase in risk for developing lung cancer when compared with other nonsmokers. An estimated 3,000 lung cancer deaths occur each year in the U.S. that are attributable to passive smoking.


Asbestos fibers are silicate fibers that can persist for a lifetime in lung tissue following exposure to asbestos. The workplace is a common source of exposure to asbestos fibers, as asbestos was widely used in the past for both thermal and acoustic insulation materials. Today, asbestos use is limited or banned in many countries including the Unites States. Both lung cancer and mesothelioma (a type of cancer of the pleura or of the lining of the abdominal cavity called the peritoneum) are associated with exposure to asbestos. Cigarette smoking drastically increases the chance of developing an asbestos-related lung cancer in exposed workers. Asbestos workers who do not smoke have a fivefold greater risk of developing lung cancer than non-smokers, and those asbestos workers who smoke have a risk that is 50 to 90 times greater than non-smokers.

Radon gas is a natural, chemically inert gas that is a natural decay product of uranium. It decays to form products that emit a type of ionizing radiation. Radon gas is a known cause of lung cancer. with an estimated 12% of lung cancer deaths attributable to radon gas, or 15,000 to 22,000 lung cancer-related deaths annually in the U.S. As with asbestos exposure, concomitant smoking greatly increases the risk of lung cancer with radon exposure. Radon gas can travel up through soil and enter homes through gaps in the foundation, pipes, drains, or other openings. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that one out of every 15 homes in the U.S. contains dangerous levels of radon gas. Radon gas is invisible and odorless, but can be detected with simple test kits.

While the majority of lung cancers are associated with tobacco smoking, the fact that not all smokers eventually develop lung cancer suggests that other factors, such as individual genetic susceptibility, may play a role in the causation of lung cancer. Numerous studies have shown that lung cancer is more likely to occur in both smoking and nonsmoking relatives of those who have had lung cancer than in the general population.


The presence of certain diseases of the lung, notably chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD ), is associated with a slightly increased risk (four to six times the risk of a nonsmoker) for the development of lung cancer even after the effects of concomitant cigarette smoking are excluded.

Prior history of lung cancer

Survivors of lung cancer have a greater risk than the general population of developing a second lung cancer. Survivors of non-small cell lung cancers have an added risk of 1%-2% per year for developing a second lung cancer. In survivors of small cell lung cancers, the risk for development of second cancers approaches 6% per year.

Air pollution, from vehicles, industry, and power plants, can raise the likelihood of developing lung cancer. Up to 1% of lung cancer deaths are attributable to breathing polluted air, and experts believe that prolonged exposure to highly polluted air can carry a risk similar to that of passive smoking for the development of lung cancer.

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Sujana Movva, MD on July 26, 2015


Lung Cancer Causes from MedicineNet.

National Cancer Institute.

American Cancer Society.

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Gagne A/C brings decades of experience and personalized care to any central heating and cooling system issue. Gagne A/C is a highly experienced installer of HVAC and ductless split A/C units for both residential and commercial needs. Besides emergency air conditioning repair, Gagne A/C is also a highly experienced installer of HVAC and ductless split A/C units for both residential and commercial needs. We specialize in Carrier and also service AC units by leading manufacturers including Trane, Amana, Goodman, Lennox, Honeywell, Rheem, York and more. When your A/C system needs maintenance or repair, contact service experts at Gagne A/C today to stay cool (…or warm) in your home. We repair heating and air conditioning systems, furnaces, heat pumps, and ductless split systems, zoned systems, duct work, air sanitizing systems and everything you need for your home comfort needs.

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Family owned and operated since 1961, we are your trusted local experts for home air conditioning and heating services. Our technicians are factory trained and NATE certified, delivering the best quality service, industry expertise and installations to each of our customers.

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A Message from a Loyal Customer

Dear Kahn Air Team,

Thank you for all your help with the new AC system!

I wanted to express our appreciation for your entire crew at Kahn Air. Obviously we’re already thrilled with our experience because our delivery/install date went from next Tuesday to this past Tuesday! That was such great news! But even without that, we would still be talking about what a great experience we had with Kahn. Every step of the process was a lesson in excellent customer service.

Our first meeting was one of four I had looking for estimates on a new system. You gave us the quote I asked for it was an estimate to replace the system as it was with options for two different compressors. Everyone else showed up with different ideas on how we should do it and tried to sell us systems that we either didn’t want or didn’t match the other quotes. I wanted four matching quotes so my wife and I could compare apples to apples. All the other companies were trying to hide pricing behind supposed upgraded incentives and discounts based on purchase dates. Just be straight-forward with your pricing and you’ll always win in the end that’s what you did with your quote and we appreciated that.

But even after our meeting and before the actual install date we had two more visits by a couple of your service guys. I’m pretty sure the first guy was Ivan about three weeks ago (we had the capacitor replaced on the old system) and then Felix was here on Monday. Both guys were courteous and took their time to explain the issue the options and in the case with Felix, the honest reality that it was time to finally get that thing replaced. But it means a lot to have service guys that aren’t just good at the technical and physical parts of the job, but that they’re just nice guys. And then Sal and Edgar got here to replace the system another two great guys. They really took care to protect our new floors and worked quickly to get the system up and running. And just like Ivan and Felix two really good guys.

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Every person we’ve dealt with at Kahn has had the same high level of customer service it shows that the company is doing it right. When that attitude of taking care of the customer starts on the phone and carries through service and installation it means that everyone is on the same team and the priority is still on the customer. Please extend our appreciation to everyone that we worked with over the last month or so.

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Trump’s revenge? Laptop ban may not have much to do with plane security

US to ban electronic devices on many flights

From Tuesday on, passengers travelling to the US from 10 airports in eight Muslim-majority countries will not be allowed to have iPads, laptops or any communications device larger than a smartphone in the cabin of the plane.

If you are travelling from Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, or the UAE on Egypt Air, Emirates, Etihad Airways, Kuwait Airways, Qatar Airways, Royal Air Maroc, Royal Jordanian Airlines, Saudi Arabian Airlines, or Turkish Airlines, and you want to use your laptop on the flight, you are probably out of luck.

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The US says it’s all about security

The Trump administration says the new rules were introduced because of intelligence that shows terrorists are continuing to target airlines flying to the United States.

Related Article

An unidentified person familiar with the issue has told The Washington Post that officials have long been worried by a Syrian terrorist group that is trying to build bombs inside electronic devices that are hard to detect.

However, as Demitri Sevastopulo and Robert Wright at the Financial Times suggest, non-US observers are skeptical of this explanation. They note that the United States has not been forthcoming about whether the ban is based on recent intelligence or long-standing concerns.

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There is also no explanation for why electronic devices in the cabin are a concern, and electronic devices in the baggage hold are not.

There is another explanation

It may not be about security after all. Three of the airlines that have been targeted for these measures – Emirates, Etihad Airways and Qatar Airways – have long been accused by their US competitors of receiving massive effective subsidies from their governments.

These airlines have been quietly worried for months that President Trump was going to retaliate. This may be the retaliation.

These three airlines, as well as the other airlines targeted in the order, are likely to lose a major amount of business from their most lucrative customers – people who travel in business class and first class.

Business travellers are disproportionately likely to want to work on the plane – the reason they are prepared to pay business-class or first-class fares is because it allows them to work in comfort. These travellers are unlikely to appreciate having to do all their work on smartphones, or not being able to work at all.

The likely result is that many of them will stop flying on Gulf airlines, and start travelling on US airlines instead.

As the Financial Times notes, the order doesn’t affect only the airlines’ direct flights to and from the United States – it attacks the “hub” airports that are at the core of their business models.

These airlines not only fly passengers directly from the Gulf region to the United States – they also fly passengers from many other destinations, transferring them from one plane to another in the hubs.

This “hub and spoke” approach is a standard economic model for long-haul airlines, offering them large savings. However, it also creates big vulnerabilities. If competitors or unfriendly states can undermine or degrade the hub, they can inflict heavy economic damage.

Weaponising interdependence

As we have argued in the past, and talk about in forthcoming work, the US move can be understood as a variant form of “weaponised interdependence.”

We live in an interdependent world, where global networks span across countries, creating enormous benefits, but also great disparities of power.

As networks grow, they tend to concentrate both influence and vulnerability in a few key locations, creating enormous opportunities for states, regulators and non-state actors who have leverage over those locations.

In this context, the United States is plausibly leveraging its control over access to US airports, which are central “nodes” in the global network of air travel between different destinations.

It is using this control to attack the key vulnerabilities of other networked actors, by going after the central nodes in their networks (the hub airports) and potentially severely damaging them.

What can Gulf airline carriers do?

Gulf airlines have tried to defend themselves against political attacks from US competitors by appealing to free trade principles. The problem is that standard free trade agreements, such as World Trade Organisation rules, don’t really apply to airlines (although they do apply to related sectors, such as the manufacture of airplanes).

This has allowed the Gulf airlines to enjoy massive subsidies, without having to worry too much about being sued in the WTO.

However, it also makes it hard for Gulf states or the states of other affected airlines to take a WTO case against the new US rules, even if these rules turn out to be motivated by protectionism and the desire to retaliate, rather than real underlying security questions.

If this were happening in a different sector, it would make for a pretty interesting case.

States preserve carve-outs from international trade rules when they feel that their security is at stake.

Would the United States prevail in a case like this, where there is a colourable security justification, but where there is also a very plausible argument that the real motivation doesn’t have much to do with security?

Or would the WTO defer to the United States’ proposed justification?

It’s very likely that the Trump administration will make more unilateral rules that are justified using the language of national security, but are plausibly motivated by protectionism, so we may find out.

Farrell is associate professor of political science and international affairs at George Washington University. Newman is associate professor of international politics at Georgetown University. For other commentary from The Monkey Cage. an independent blog anchored by a group of political scientists from universities around the country, see

The Washington Post

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